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Major update reorganizes entire haplogroup I2 tree

Monday, December 23, 2019

2019-12-22 draft tree for I-CTS10228

Click here to download our 2019-12-22 draft tree for I-CTS10228

This tree shows the following updates:

  • A new branch called I-Y81696, it contains two Big Y samples, they are the only known CTS10228+ and S20602- men. This update also resolves the position of several SNPs that are equivalent to CTS10228 and S20602, compare to our 2019-10-14 I-CTS10228 tree. The two I-Y81696 men both have paternal ancestry from southwestern Germany/neighboring areas of France, and they share the distinctive marker value DYS565=9 with the I-S20602 men.
  • we have created a new draft tree specifically for the major I-Z17855 branch, click here
  • a new branch called I-Y87441, it's part of the Jewish Dinaric cluster
  • as a reminder, there are only two known I-S20602* men. FTDNA lists a third man (kit 117308) as I-S20602*, but in fact he has Y18331+ results according to his Big Y-500 and his Big Y-700 upgrade. His Big Y-700 reported only 7 reads for Y18331, all 7 reads were positive A+ reads. He has Greek paternal ancestry, like almost all men in I-Y18331


Click here to find our previous draft tree for I-CTS10228
Click here for a brief description of the I-CTS10228 haplogroup

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Our first draft tree specific to I-Z17855 (dated 2019-12-22)

Click here to download our first draft tree specific to I-Z17855 (dated 2019-12-22)

This tree shows the following updates:

  • 2 new I-Z17855* samples, they have paternal ancestry from Bulgaria and Ukraine
  • a new branch called I-BY210265 immediately below I-Z17855. One of the I-BY210265 samples has paternal ancestry from Serbia and the other has Greek ancestry from Edirne/Adrianople, Turkey (European Turkey near the border with Greece and Bulgaria)
  • a new branch called I-FT154835, one sample has Serbian ancestry from the Dvor, Croatia area and the other has Romanian ancestry
  • some additional SNP information for existing branches


Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS10288, which included I-Z17855
Click here for a brief description of the I-Z17855 haplogroup

2019-12-22 tree for I-L160

Click here to download our 2019-12-22 tree for I-L160

This tree shows the following updates:

  • a new I-V1686 branch, it's parallel to the large I-CTS11851branch. The families in this branch have Mexican/Spanish and English paternal ancestry. V1686 and other V series SNPs in this branch were first discovered in an anonymous I2 sample in Trombetta et al: Regional Differences in the Accumulation of SNPs on the Male-Specific Portion of the Human Y Chromosome Replicate Autosomal Patterns: Implications for Genetic Dating. The article and supplementary material can be found here: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0134646
  • a new I-Y83613* branch which contains some families from County Kerry in southwestern Ireland, they have English and Irish families. They share a MRCA who lived a few hundred years ago with the more specific I-FT18829 branch which contains the large Allen family from Virginia, USA
  • a new I-BY205153 branch (English origin). The two samples in this branch aren't closely related to each other and we can't find any other families that might belong to this branch based on STR marker patterns
  • a third sample in I-A19455


Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160
Click here for a brief description of the I-L160 haplogroup

Saturday, December 21, 2019

2019-12-21 tree for I-A2230

Click here to download our 2019-12-21 tree for I-A2230

There are now four completed Big Ys for I-BY175113 and we can refine the placement of many SNPs

  • The  I-BY175113* branch contains one sample with English ancestry, he's a distant STR match to another English-origin family
  • The I-BY174728* branch contains an American with ethnic German ancestry from western Romania
  • The I-BY174996 branch contains two German-American men. They have the same surname but they aren't closely related
The men in the German branches don't have any obvious STR matches with other families


Click here to find our previous tree for I-A2230
Click here for a brief description of the I-A2230 haplogroup

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Minor updates: 2019-12-02 tree for I-Y4882

Click here to download our 2019-12-02 draft tree for I-Y4882

This tree shows a new branch called I-FGC82983/Y152101.  The two members are closely related and they have paternal ancestry from northwestern Russia. One did his test at FGC and the other at FTDNA. Both men have ordered the YFull.com analysis. YFull will add this branch to their tree soon, but maybe they will choose a different SNP to name this branch.

This tree also shows a new placement for FT66517. Formerly it was equivalent to B474/Y16473.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4882
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4882 haplogroup

Monday, November 25, 2019

Two more I-A7729 samples (Isles-C1): 2019-11-23 tree for I-Y5455

Click here to download our 2019-11-23 tree for I-Y5455

This tree shows two new samples in different branches of I-A7729. One man has ancestry from County Longford, Ireland and the other man is American with likely Irish ancestry from an unknown county.

Click here to find our previous I-Y5455 tree
Click here for a brief description of the  I-Y5455 haplogroup

Three new samples: 2019-11-23 tree for I-FGC56815

Click here to download our 2019-11-23 tree for I-FGC56815

This tree shows the following updates:

  • a new I-FGC56815* sample, he is American with 1700s ancestry from Scotland near Glasgow
  • a new Big Y for a member of the American Terry family
  • a third sample in the I-A21933 branch (which FTDNA calls I-BY50117). Two of the men are from the American Scott family. The third man is English with a different surname. But all three men are close STR matches to some American men who have a surname very similar to the English man.
All known members of I-FGC56815 have English or Scottish paternal ancestry.

A third sample in a Scottish branch of I-PF4189: 2019-11-22 tree for I-CTS11338

Click here to download our 2019-11-22 tree for I-CTS11338

This update shows a third Big Y sample in I-BY67299. This is a large cluster below I-PF4189 that contains a large family named Barclay and other Scottish and northern English families. The I-BY67299 branch isn't yet on FTDNA and YFull's trees.

Two of these men have ordered the YFull analysis, YFull currently shows these samples in the I-Y89254* section. In a few weeks, YFull will add the new branch and calculate a MRCA age.

FTDNA currently places these samples in the I-Z44354* section of the Big Y Block tree. Y89254 and Z44354 are equivalent SNPs.

When YFull and FTDNA add the new branch, maybe they will name it I-BY67299 or maybe they will chose another SNP to name the branch.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS11338
Click here for a brief description of the I-CTS11338 haplogroup

Friday, November 22, 2019

A new I-A10029 sample with 68 private variants: 2019-11-22 tree for I-L161

Click here to download our 2019-11-22 tree for I-L161

We are still finding I-P37 samples which are very distantly related to any previous sample. This tree shows a new sample who has 68 private variants that haven't been reported in any previous I-P37 Big Y result.

He belongs to I-A10029 which is a rare branch below I-L1498. Most I-L1498 men belong to the large I-S2703 branch which contains all of Isles-C and Isles-D and a large part of Isles-B. But I-A10029 isn't part of I-S2703. The other I-A10029 men are from Scotland and Germany, and there is one American man whose European ancestry is unknown, it could be Germany or Ireland according to his family stories.

There are now very few members in the general I-L161 and I-L1498 sections of our I-P37's project STR results page. In almost every case, we can predict a more specific haplogroup based on STR marker patterns.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161
Click here for a brief description of the I-L161 haplogroup

A new sample in I-A19385: 2019-11-21 tree for I-L233 tree

Click here to download our 2019-11-21 tree for I-L233

This update shows a new sample in I-A19385, he is American with British ancestry.  I-A19385 also contains men with French-Canadian and Finnish ancestry. Many branches of I-L233 "Western" have only been found in Great Britain and Ireland at this point, I-A19385 seems to have a wider distribution.)


Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233
Click here for a brief description of the I-L233 haplogroup

Thursday, November 21, 2019

18 branches in the I-L233 Lindsay family: 2019-11-20 tree for I-FT11343

Click here to download our 2019-11-20 draft tree for I-FT11343

This tree shows a new branch called I-FT67534.

Almost all samples on this tree are named Lindsay, Lindsey or Lindesay. A few samples have other surnames, but they belong to downstream branches and very likely had a Lindsay paternal ancestor at some point in the past.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-FT11343
Click here for a brief description of the I-FT11343 haplogroup

Sunday, November 10, 2019

2019-11-10 draft tree for I-L233 with new I-FT88541 branch

Click here to download our 2019-11-10 draft tree for I-L233

This update shows a new branch called I-FT88541, this draft tree places it below I-Y82374. But this is a preliminary placement. An I-Y82374 man has an upgrade to Big Y-700 in progress, and we expect this will clarify the placement of FT8854.

Click here to find our previous I-L233 tree
Click here for a brief description of the I-L233 haplogroup

Sunday, November 3, 2019

A critical mass of 75 Big Y results: 2019-11-03 tree for I-PH908

Click here to download our 2019-11-03 draft tree for I-PH908

There are now 75 completed Big Y results for I-PH908, almost all of these men are members of the I-P37 project at FTDNA. And there are at least three additional I-PH908 samples on the YFull tree, two are from Dante Labs and one is from a scientific study.

With so many samples to compare, each new Big Y result has a good chance of sharing downstream variants with a previous result, and we are finding many new branches as shown on this updated tree:

  • a branch which contains some men from Kazakhstan, they share 8 variants which haven't been named. They also share the distinctive marker value DYS389=14-33
  • a new I-BY198275 haplogroup which contains two known men. One of these men is more specifically P41.2/M359.2+.  The P41.2/M359.2 SNP was discovered many years ago and scientific studies have found this SNP in a small percentage of I-P37 men.
This tree also shows several updates in the I-FT16449 branch:

  • a new branch named I-Y126296 
  • a new branch named I-BY173308
  • a new branch named I-FT33812
  • a new sample that is I-BY169079*
Finally this tree shows two samples that are I-FT14506*. They are shown in the middle of the I-FT14506 section for reasons of space. They don't share any further variants below FT14506.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-PH908
Click here for a brief description of the I-PH908 haplogroup

A new branch in the I-M26 Jewish cluster: 2019-11-03 tree for I-F1295

Click here to download our 2019-11-03 draft tree for I-F1295

There are only two known clusters of Jewish-ancestry men in I-P37: one in I-CTS10228 and one in I-M26. The cluster in I-M26 is named I-A11749 by FTDNA, and named I-BY18705 by YFull. This updated tree shows a new branch below I-A11749.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-F1295
Click here for a brief description of the I-F1295 haplogroup

Friday, November 1, 2019

2019-11-01 Draft tree for I-A8462

Click here to download our 2019-11-01 draft tree for I-A8462

As of this update, we have moved the large Lindsay family to a tree of their own. Click here to find the new I-FT11343 (Lindsay) tree.

This updated I-A8462 tree shows a new I-A16520* sample. But he did the Big Y-500 test several years ago and his results for the FT series SNPs are unknown.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-A8462
Click here for a brief description of the I-A8462 haplogroup 

Our first draft tree specific to the Lindsay family: I-FT11343

Click here to download our 2019-11-01 draft tree for I-FT11343

For reasons of legibility we have created this new I-FT11343 tree. All members of I-FT11343 are named Lindsay, Lindsey or Lindesay, or they belong to downstream branches and very likely have a Lindsay paternal ancestor at some point in the past.

This I-FT11343 tree shows approximately 35 completed Big Y tests for the Lindsay family. There are two major branches of I-FT11343, and YFull calculates that the common ancestor of the two branches lived approximately 1000 years ago. (YFull doesn't include FT11343 on their tree). Very likely this common ancestor was named Lindsay or similar.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-A8462 which included information about I-FT11343
Click here for a brief description of the I-FT11343 haplogroup

Monday, October 28, 2019

New branches: 2019-10-27 tree for I-Y4460

Click here to download our 2019-10-27 draft tree for I-Y4460

This tree shows two new branches:

  • I-BY137420, the samples are from Russia and an unspecified country
  • I-FT8963, the samples are from Poland and an unspecified country

This tree also shows I-BY94806 as a subgroup of I-FT40113. These branches were formerly considered to be parallel branches. There are at least 7 samples in these branches, they are from Poland, Russia, Ukraine and unspecified countries.

Finally this tree shows a new Big Y-700 result (Russia) in the I-A6106 haplogroup.



Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4460
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4440 haplogroup

New branch in DYS413=19-22 cluster: 2019-10-26 tree for I-Y11222

Click here to download our 2019-10-26 draft tree for I-Y11222

This tree shows a new branch called I-FT53174, it's part of the larger I-A14285 haplogroup. I-A14285 is also known as I-Y62258, and we formerly called it the DYS413=19-22 cluster after its most distinctive STR marker value.

The new Big Y result has DYS413=22-22, but very likely this line had the 19-22 in earlier generations.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y11222
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y11222 haplogroup

Friday, October 25, 2019

Another major British branch below I-PF4189: 2019-10-24 tree for I-CTS11338

Click here to download our 2019-10-24 tree for I-CTS11338

I-PF4189 is a major branch of the I-M26 halogroup. It's well known that I-M26 is very common in Sardinia, approximately 35-40% of men in Sardinia belong to I-M26. But of the I-M26 men in Sardinia, approximately 75% belong to I-PF4189, more specifically to I-PF4190. Very few men from other parts of Europe belong to I-PF4190, we have found several from Germany, one from France, and one family from Ireland (likely Norman or other Continental European ancestry hundreds of years ago).

You can see on this draft tree that I-PF4189 has three known child branches:
I-PF4190 (see paragraph above)
I-A19487
I-A12373

I-A19487 and I-A12373 both have only British origin, according to current knowledge. But Great Britain and Ireland are much better sampled than other parts of the world, and maybe we will find additional samples in other countries.

This tree includes a new branch below I-A19487, it's called I-BY67299. This branch includes Scottish-origin families including some named Barclay, and it's most recent common ancestor with the rest of I-A19487 lived approximately 3,000 years ago.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS11338
Click here for a brief description of the I-CTS11338 haplogroup



Wednesday, October 16, 2019

New branch below I-Y12072, new branch parallel to Driscoll family: 2019-10-17 tree for I-Y12072

Click here to download our 2019-10-17 tree for I-Y12072

This update shows the new I-FT145775 branch, one of the known members is from Germany and the other is American with likely English paternal ancestry. This branch was already known, but now that there are two Big Ys for this branch it can be named. The two men share at least 24 additional SNPs that are currently equivalent to FT145775.

This tree shows a new branch immediately below I-A13665. Because only one man is known to belong to this branch, we can't confirm the SNPs and we call this branch I-A13665*.  The I-A13665* man has paternal ancestry from central France.

All other known men in I-A13665 belong to the more specific I-Y31631 branch, and they all are named Driscoll or O'Driscoll, or they very likely have a paternal ancestor named Driscoll at some point in the past. Y31631 is in a region which is very similar (97%) to other two regions in the Y chromosome, it can not be tested as an individual SNP.

FTDNA shows Y31631 as equivalent to A13665, this is incorrect.

FTDNA shows Y85926 as equivalent to the downstream SNP A14539, this is incorrect. This draft tree shows Y85926 in the correct position: equivalent to A13665.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y12072
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y12072 haplogroup




2019-10-03 draft tree for I-L161

Click here to download our 2019-10-03 draft tree for I-L161


This update includes no new branches and no new Big Y results. But this updates shows that we have created a new tree for the more specific I-A8742 haplogroup, click here to find it.

This tree also shows three new FT-series SNPs (indicated in red), they are equivalent to A1150. The FT prefix indicates that these SNPs were named by FTDNA based on Big Y-700 results (and the BY prefix indicates SNPs that were named by FTDNA based on Big Y-500 results).

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161
Click here for a brief description of the I-L161 haplogroup

Our first draft tree for I-A8742 (part of I-L161 "Isles")

Click here to download our 2019-10-03 draft tree for I-A8742

For reasons of legibility, we have created a new draft tree specifically for the I-A8742. This  haplogroup has a most recent common ancestor who lived approximately 6400 years ago, according to YFull's calculation. But it's a small haplogroup, and all known I-A8742 members have paternal origin from Great Britain and France.

I-A8742 includes Ken Nordtvedt's Isles-B5 cluster and some other branches that don't match the cluster very well. But even Isles-B5 was poorly defined by STR marker patterns. And I-A8742 is part of the larger I-A1150 haplogroup which includes the Isles-B3 cluster and additional branches that don't match Isles-B3 very well.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161, which included information on I-A8742
Click here for a brief description of the I-A8742 haplogroup

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Two new Big Y-700 samples in I-Z17855: 2019-10-14 tree for I-CTS10228

Click here to download our  2019-10-14 draft tree for I-CTS10228

This tree includes two new Big Y-700 results (indicated in red). Both belong to the I-Z17855 haplogroup. One has ancestry from Bulgaria and belongs to an I-Z17855* branch, and the other has ancestry from Moldova and belongs to an I-Y39505* branch.

This tree also includes two FT-series SNPs (indicated in red), these were discovered thanks to Big Y-700 results.

Click here to find our previous I-CTS10228 tree
Click here for a brief description of the I-CTS10228 haplogroup

Two new branches: 2019-10-14 tree for I-PH908

Click here to download our 2019-10-14 draft tree for I-PH908

This update shows two new branches:

I-BY169115 which is part of I-A356/Z16983. The two known members of I-BY169115 have paternal ancestry from Serbia and central Italy. I-BY169115 is on the FTDNA haplotree and Big Y Block Tree.

I-FT138628 which is of I-FT16449.  The two known members of I-FT138628 have paternal ancestry from Serbia and northwestern Bulgaria.  I-FT138628 is not on the FTDNA haplotree and Big Y Block Tree.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-PH908
Click here for a brief description of the I-PH908 haplogroup

Monday, October 14, 2019

More details about a German branch in I-S2742 ("Isles"): 2019-10-14 draft tree for I-A2230

Click here to download our 2019-10-14 draft tree for I-A2230

I-S2742 is a large haplogroup that contains most of Ken Nordtvedt's Isles-B cluster. I-S2742 has many branches and it's found in Great Britain and Ireland, but also in Germany, Poland, Sweden etc.

I-A2230 is a small part of I-S2742, the remainder of I-S2742 can be found on our I-S2703 tree and other trees.

This update shows more details about I-BY175113 which at present contains two ethnic German families, one from eastern Hungary/Romania and the other possibly from Switzerland.

Click here to find our previous I-A2230 tree
Click here for a brief description of the I-A2230 haplogroup

Friday, October 11, 2019

FGC56883 is maybe immediately below Y4252: 2019-10-11 draft tree for I-L233

Click here to download our 2019-10-11 draft tree for I-L233

As mentioned in our previous post about I-L233, the major I-Y4252 haplogroup contains 22 immediate descendant branches. 14 branches are named (I-A7111 for example) and 8 branches are unnamed because these branches each contain only a single Big Y result at present.

There is a SNP that maybe is shared by 9 of these branches, it's called FGC56883. If this is true, then I-Y4252 has only 14 immediate descendant branches: I-FGC56883 and 13 additional branches. There doesn't seem to be any geographic pattern: I-FGC56883 contains some branches that have been found only in Great Britain and some branches that have been found in both Britain and continental Europe, but the Y4252+ FGC56883- group also contains some branches that have been found only in Great Britain and some branches that have been found in both Britain and continental Europe.

Unfortunately FGC56883 occurs inside a palindrome region and probably it won't be added to the official trees at FTDNA and at YFull etc.  And FGC56883 doesn't give clear results in Big Y testing.

There is one group where FGC56883 is clearly negative C-:
I-A7111,
I-Y32652 aka I-A15076,
I-Y86483 aka I-Y94320 ,
I-A19385
I-Y84928
and some I-Y4252* samples

And another group where FGC56883 has approximately equal number of positive T+ and negative C- reads or even greater number of positive T+ reads:
I-A417,
I-A19486,
I-FGC56815,
I-Y142672
I-Y33761
I-Y32657 aka I-A15050
I-A10033
and some I-Y4252* samples





Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233
Click here for a brief description of the I-L233 haplogroup

SNPs to define the beginning of the surname era: 2019-10-11 tree for I-Y4882

Click here to download our 2019-10-11 draft tree for I-Y4882

Our previous trees showed a branch called I-V2860, it contained two men with the same surname, they have ancestry from Poland. Our previous trees showed 17 SNPs as equivalent to V2860, one of these SNPs is named Y100616.

But this update shows a new Big Y result for another man with Polish ancestry. This result split the I-V2860 haplogroup. Now there is an upstream branch called I-Y100616 which contains all three men, and a redefined I-V2860 branch which contains only the two men with the same surname.

This update shows another branch called I-A21222 (also known as I-BY42258), it contains three men with the same German surname (one of these men is not a member of the I-P37 project). It's part of the upstream branch called I-BY42257. Previously BY42257, A21222, BY42258 and many other SNPs were considered to be equivalent. Thanks to a recent Big Y for a Russian man, we know that BY42257 is the oldest and most widespread of these SNPs. (this paragraph was edited on 2019-10-31)


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4882
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4882 haplogroup

Wednesday, October 2, 2019

New German/English branches below I-Y4252: 2019-09-28 tree for I-L233

Click here to download our 2019-09-28 draft tree for I-L233

This update shows two new branches below I-Y4252, they are named I-BY82831 and I-BY117344. Each of these branches contains one German-ancestry man and one English-ancestry man.

At the moment I-Y4252 contains 22 immediate descendant branches. 14 branches are named, and 8 branches are unnamed because they contain only a single Big Y sample. The Big Y-700 test hasn't revealed any new SNPs immediately below I-Y4252 that could resolve these 22 branches into fewer haplogroups immediately below I-Y4252.

I-Y4252 had its initial expansion approximately 1800 years ago according to YFull's current calculation (previously the MRCA age was slightly older). If this expansion occurred in continental Europe and some branches later arrived in Great Britain, we would expect to see more branches in continental Europe and fewer branches in Britain. But currently we see the opposite: there are many branches that have been found only in Britain/Ireland.

I think this is probably because British and Irish-ancestry men are highly over represented in the Big Y customer database, even compared to countries like the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. As more men do tests, I think we will see that most of the branches that are currently British-only will contain some continental European men, and that's exactly what we are seeing with I-BY82831 and I-BY117344 and with earlier discoveries like I-BY65456.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233
Click here for a brief description of the I-L233 haplogroup

Sunday, September 29, 2019

A new branch of the Driscoll family: 2019-09-29 tree for I-Y12072

Click here to download our 2019-09-29 draft tree for I-Y12072

This update shows a new branch called I-Y102853, it's the 10th named branch for I-A13665 (the Driscoll family from County Cork, Ireland)

This update also shows many new SNPs in red, these were discovered recently thanks to Big Y-700 results.

Our recent draft trees have shown Y91501 immediately below PF4135. But the position of Y91501 should now be considered uncertain. Kits 667572 and 261782 have no reads for Y91501 in their new Big Y-700 results.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y12072
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y12072 haplogroup

A third branch of I-PF4088: 2019-09-28 tree for I-L160

Click here to download our 2019-09-28 draft tree for I-L160

This tree shows a new branch called I-Y137889, it's one of three branches below I-PF4088.

I-Y137889 is uncommon, the known members have Spanish ancestry, or they are Americans with likely British ancestry. They all share some distinctive marker values: DYS447=20 or lower, and DYS425=10.

The other two branches of I-PF4088 are called I-A17273 and I-CTS1758. For reasons of legibility, we have created a new draft tree specific to I-A17273 (click here)    I-CTS1758 is a very large group and it contains I-Z102, I-PF4189 and many other branches.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160
Click here for a brief description of the I-L160 haplogroup

Our first draft tree specific to I-A17273 (part of I-M26)

Click here to download our 2019-09-28 tree for I-A17273

For reasons of legibility, we have created a new draft tree for I-A17273.  

The I-A17273 branch is large and has many subbranches, it's found in Iberia but also found in Switzerland, the UK, Ireland and Germany,  and even in northern Poland, Sweden, and Finland. I-A17273 was completely unknown before Big Y testing, and there is still much to learn about this haplogroup.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160, which included information on I-A17273
Click here for a brief description of the I-A17273 haplogroup

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

FT10545 unites two haplogroups below I-Y3106: 2019-09-24 tree for I-Y4460

Click here to download our  2019-09-24 draft tree for I-Y4460

On our 2019-08-20 draft tree for I-Y4460, we added a new branch below I-Y3106 (click here). The new branch was called I-FT9301 and it contained three samples. All three samples were FT9301+ and FT10545+.

After some new Big Y-700 results,  FT9301 is still found only in these three samples. But FT10545 is found in a wider group: the I-Y91535 haplogroup is also FT10545+.

This updated tree shows I-FT10545 immediately below I-Y3106 (and I-Y3106 is also known as I-B57 because Y3106 and B57 are currently phylogenetically equivalent). And I-FT10545 is the parent of I-Y91535 and I-FT9301.

There are several additional branches of I-Y3106, and at least one member of each branch has FT10545- results. (These branches are I-FT78951, I-Y3118, I-S8201, I-A6106 and I-Y47356)

Note: FT10545 is well sampled in Big Y-700 tests and some Big Y-500 tests contain a few reads of FT10545. As shown on our draft tree, FT10545 occurs at ChrY position (Hg38):17349392 G to A. FTDNA's Big Y Results page doesn't currently display information for FT10545. To see your result for FT10545,  change the Derived? box to "Show All" and enter YP1222 in the SNP name box (YP1222 is a neighboring SNP). When you see YP1222 displayed as a search result, click on YP1222 and you will see FTDNA's chromosome browser which shows the FT10545 position.
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Our tree continues to show Y3106 and B57 as equivalent SNPs. We know 4 Big Y-500 results for the I-S8201 branch, none of them have B57 result. We are not aware of any individual B57 test in the I-S8201 haplogroup. There is a Big Y-700 test in progress for someone in I-S8201, maybe this will show a B57 result.



Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4460
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4460 haplogroup

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Our first draft tree specific to Isles-C: 2019-09-20 tree for I-Y5455

Click here to download our 2019-09-20 tree for I-Y5455

For reasons of legibility, we have created a new tree specifically for the I-Y5455 haplogroup. This contains all of the branches that are sometimes nicknamed Isles-C.

Isles-C was identified more than 13 years ago by haplogroup I expert Ken Nordvedt. Everyone in Ken's Isles-C cluster shares several distinctive STR marker values. And we now know that everyone in I-Y5455 also shares these values.

YFull estimates that the common ancestor of I-Y5455 lived approximately 2100 years ago. As far as we know, everyone in I-Y5455 has paternal ancestry from Ireland, especially from central-western Ireland (counties Mayo, Galway, Roscommon, Meath, Westmeath etc). There are some American families with unknown Irish/British ancestry who belong to I-Y5455. One of these families is named Armstrong which is a famous surname from the Scottish-English border area, and many of these Armstrongs settled in Ireland hundreds of years ago. But Armstrong is also often an anglicization of Irish language names that are also anglicized as Traynor, Lavery or Lowry. See https://johngrenham.com/





Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723 which included information about I-Y5455
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y5455 haplogroup

Sunday, September 15, 2019

A Big Y for an Irish/Norwegian cluster: 2019-09-15 tree for I-Y11222

Click here to download our 2019-09-15 tree for I-Y11222

I-M26 has two major branches, I-L160 and I-Y11222, and there are also some I-M26 men who don't belong to either branch.

I-L160 and I-Y11222 are both found throughout Western Europe: Iberia, France, Sardinia, the UK and Ireland, Germany etc. But I-L160 is much more common than I-Y11222. And maybe more of I-L160's population is found in southwestern Europe, and maybe I-Y11222 has a larger percentage of its members in northwestern Europe.

There is a STR marker cluster that contains three known families: two live in western Norway, one is Norwegian-American and one is Irish-American from County Limerick (Limerick City was founded by the Vikings, as were all Irish cities).

Based on the STR variance, maybe the common ancestor of these families lived approximately 1000 years ago. Was the founder of this lineage from Ireland, from Norway, or from somewhere else? I-M26 is quite typical of Ireland but unknown in Norway other than this cluster.
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This update shows a Big Y-700 result for the Irish member of this cluster. He is in a branch with a previous Big Y-500 for an Irish-American man who doesn't match the cluster well, and their common ancestor must have lived over 2,000 years ago (it's difficult to calculate MRCAs when comparing Big Y-500 and Big Y-700). Our tree calls their branch I-Y45216, maybe YFull and FTDNA will choose different names.

Both I-Y45216 men have the distinctive STR marker value DYS413=19-20. (Most of men in I-M26 have DYS413=21-21 or 21-22). The small I-Y45216 branch has a much larger parallel branch named I-A14285 usually has DYS413=19-22. So the common ancestor of these branches probably had a low value at this marker: 19-20, 19-21, 19-22, 20-21 etc.

I-A14285 is most common in Great Britain but after we had found more than 20 British families in this branch, we began to find a few from France, Spain, etc. Sometimes we think a branch is restricted to Britain and Ireland, but eventually we find continental members.
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This update also shows a new big Y for Y15580. The I-Y15580 branch has a MRCA who lived 3900 years ago, according to YFull's calculation. All known members of I-Y15580 are Irish and British, mostly Irish. But it's a rare branch, and maybe eventually we will find continental members.




Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y11222
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y11222 haplogroup

Friday, September 13, 2019

Are these men from the same family? Updated I-FGC56815 tree

Click here to download our 2019-09-12 draft tree for I-FGC56815

This tree shows a third Big Y sample for I-Y105479. Two of the three samples have similar surnames, and maybe they are from the same family and use variant spellings of the original surname. One of the samples is the I-Y105479* sample already on the tree, and the other sample is the new Y105479+ FT100258+ sample (indicated in red).

But the two men only share three SNPs below FGC56815: Y105479 and two others.

Maybe it's just a coincidence that the two men have similar surnames, or maybe the family is many hundreds of years old. There are some other men with similar surnames in this group, and when they do Big Y tests, maybe we will be able to answer the question.

All known men in I-FGC56815 have paternal ancestry from England, and I-FGC56815 is part of the I-L233 "Western" haplogroup which is rare but typical of England and the UK.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-FGC56815
Click here to see a brief description of the I-FGC56815 haplogroup

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

2019-09-10 draft tree for I-Y4460

Click here to download our 2019-09-10 draft tree for I-Y4460

This tree shows several updates:

  • another I-Y4460* sample, it's from Bosnia and Herzegovina, and I think he has earlier ancestry from Slovakia  his family was "from Montenegro where they have been living for a few centuries, and before that they lived in Macedonia or Bulgaria" (edited thanks to comment below from Georg)
  • a new branch called I-FT78951, the samples are from Poland and Ukraine
  • another sample in I-Y88617 (all three samples are from Sweden). Two of the samples belong to the more specific I-Y109860 branch
  • I-FT16121 which is immediately below I-Y3118


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4460
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4460 haplogroup

4 new branches in I-BY128: 2019-09-10 tree for I-S17250

Click here to download our 2019-09-10 draft tree for I-S17250

This tree shows the following new branches, all in I-BY128


  • an I-BY172310* branch which contains a man from northern Turkey
  • an I-A5875* branch which contains a man from Belarus
  • an I-FT39645* branch which contains a man with ancestry from the former USSR
  • I-FT43555 which contains two American men, one family was from Budapest and the other family was Catholic from an unknown eastern German location. Note: FT42350 is upstream of FT43555, but the position of FT42350 is not confirmed. This tree shows it below A2423, but it could be at the same level as A2423



Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250
Click here for a brief description of the I-S17250 haplogroup

A new Isles-D1 branch, & additional new branches: 2019-09-05 tree for I-Y3723

Click here to download our 2019-09-05 draft tree for I-Y3723

This tree shows several updates, indicated in red:

---A new I-Y3723* branch at the very top of the tree. You can also see two previous samples in the I-A22306 branch. These three samples belong to the poorly-defined Isles-D1 cluster. At this point, Isles-D1 contains everyone whose STR markers match the pattern for I-Y3723 but don't match the pattern for Isles-C, Isles-D2, Isles-D3/D99 or I-A10514.

I-Y3723 now has 5 immediate child branches, and maybe we will find more branches when more Isles-D1 men do Big Y tests. This is a rapid expansion that occurred approximated 3500 years ago according to YFull. I-Y3723 is almost exclusively British and Irish, and it's especially characteristic of Ireland and Scotland.

---I-A10514 has two additional samples and new branches and SNPs. More Big Ys are in progress. We don't have a good nickname for I-A10514, it contains a family named Todd, so sometimes we call it the Todd branch.

--this tree also shows a I-FGC7210 branch in Isles-D2. But this branch with two samples was already included in our previous tree, probably we neglected to remove the red color.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y3723 haplogroup



Tuesday, September 3, 2019

A new branch in I-A1328: 2019-09-03 tree for I-Y4882

Click here to download our 2019-09-03 draft tree for I-Y4882

This tree shows a new branch called I-FT16342 (also known as I-FT27092). This branch is part of I-A1328, and the two known members have paternal ancestry from Poland and Bulgaria. This branch isn't yet shown on the FTDNA haplotree and Big Y Block tree.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4882
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4882 haplogroup

Both Lindsay branches belong to I-FT11343: 2019-09-02 tree for I-A8462

Click here to download our 2019-09-02 tree for I-A8462

There is a large I-P37 Lindsay family from Scotland, they have already completed more than 25 Big Ys. All of these men belong to the I-L233 "Western" haplogroup, and more specifically to I-A8462 and most specifically to I-A16250.

But the Lindsay men belong to two different branches of I-A16520: more than 20 Big Y samples belong to I-F25958 and 3 samples belong to I-Y138968. These two branches have a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) who lived approximately 1000 years ago according to YFull's calculation. All the men in these two branches are named Lindsay, Lindsey, Lindesay or similar, or they have known Lindsay etc. paternal ancestry, or they belong to downstream branches which gives strong evidence that they have Lindsay etc. paternal ancestry.

There is a third known branch of the I-A16520 haplogroup called I-A16522 which contains men named Morrow, Murray, and Stanley.  But no Lindsays are known to belong to I-A16522.

You can see these branches on our previous tree for I-A8462 (click here).

As mentioned previously on this blog (click here), I could think of three possible explanations for the question, do the I-Y138968 men and the I-F25958 men share a common paternal ancestor named Lindsey? 


1) No, the men share an ancestor who lived before the era of surnames, and it's just a coincidence that they share the same surname and belong to closely related haplogroup branches.

2)Yes, the men share an ancestor named Lindsay, and the I-Y138968 men and the I-F25958 men share a more recent common ancestor with each other compared to the I-A16522 branch. But unfortunately the Big Y-500 didn't detect any SNP which would show the closer relationship of I-Y138968 and I-F25958.

3) Yes, the men share an ancestor named Lindsay, but this common ancestor was also the common ancestor of the I-A16520 branch as a whole. And at some later date the men in the I-A16522 branch adopted different surnames. Therefore, Murray, Morrow, Stanley etc. had a paternal ancestor named Lindsay who lived several hundred years ago.

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Luckily the Big Y-700 test has higher resolution because it sequences more regions of the Y chromosome, and several Big Y-700 tests discovered a new SNP called FT11343. As shown on our new tree, the new FT11343 branch contains both Lindsay branches (I-F2595 and I-Y138968) and the  I-A16522 branch which contains no Lindsays is FT11343-. FTDNA has added this branch to their tree and probably YFull will add it soon.

A new branch in I-Z113 and several new SNPs: 2019-09-01 tree for I-CTS11338

Click here to download our 2019-09-01 draft tree I-CTS11338

This update shows a new branch called I-BY61594, it's part of I-Z113 but it's not yet on the FTDNA tree. The two known members of I-BY61594 have paternal ancestry from Mexico (probably Spain in earlier generations) and the USA (earlier ancestry unknown).

This tree also shows several new SNPs, indicated in red.  One of these SNPs is called Z27247 and it's equivalent to I-Z102: the only known Z102+ Z113- man is Z27247+, and men in three different branches of Z103+ Z113+ are also Z27247+. And a man who is Z118+ Z102- is Z27247-.

FTDNA's haplotree and Big Y Block Tree show Z27247 and some other SNPs in incorrect positions, probably they will correct this soon.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS11338
Click here for a brief description of the I-CTS11338 haplogroup

Saturday, August 31, 2019

Friday, August 23, 2019

New tree specific to I-FGC56815 (part of I-L233 "Western")

Click here to download our first draft tree for I-FGC56815 (dated 2019-08-23)

The I-L233 haplogroup is sometimes nicknamed "Western" because it's found throughout Western Europe, but it's also found in Central and Eastern Europe (France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Germany, Poland, Croatia, Albania, Moldova, Finland etc).

Probably I-L233 is most common in Great Britain, although much less than 1% of British men belong to I-L233. (And I-L233 is very rare in Ireland, it has only been found in families that arrived in Ireland within the last 1,000 years from Britain or from Continental Europe).

The common ancestor of I-L233 lived approximately 2000 years ago according to YFull's calculation. It had a very rapid expansion at the earliest stages, for example most I-L233 men belong to the major I-Y4252 branch which has at least 22 immediate child branches.

It's difficult to study the spread of I-L233 because British-ancestry men have done so much more DNA testing than men from other countries. Most of the named branches have only been found in Britain and most of the named branches contain only a few families.

But the I-FGC56815 branch is British and contains many families, and we have created a new tree specifically for I-FGC56815. Most of the families have ancestry from the southern half of England, or they are American and have unknown ancestry, probably from Great Britain.


Click here to find our previous I-L233 tree which included information on I-FGC56815
Click here for a brief description of the I-FGC56815 haplogroup

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Many updates: 2019-08-20 tree for I-Y4460

Click here to download our 2019-08-20 tree for I-Y4460

This tree shows many updates (indicated in red):

  • some of the new samples on the tree are people who did Big Y-500 in 2018 or earlier, but joined our I-P37 project recently
  • some of the new samples on the tree are people who didn't order Big Y-500, instead they ordered Big Y-700 in 2019
  • there are some new branches on the tree thanks to people who upgraded Big Y-500 to Big Y-700


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4460
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4460 haplogroup

Monday, July 15, 2019

A possible new branch based on Big Y-700 results: 2019-07-08 tree for I-S17250

Click here to download our 2019-07-08 tree for I-S17250

This tree shows a new branch called I-FT39645, it's part of I-A2423. There are two A2423+ men who did Big Y-700, they share three SNPs called FT39645, FT42350, and FT43555. The prefix FT indicates that these SNPs were discovered in Big Y-700 results beginning in 2019 and were named by FTDNA.

But these SNPs occur in regions that weren't sequenced by the Big Y-500 test. It's possible that some of these SNPs are equivalent to A2423, and maybe all A2423+ men share some of these SNPs. Another A2423+ man has an Big Y-500 to Big Y-700 upgrade in progress, this will help us learn the correct placement of these SNPs.

This tree also shows some SNPs that are probably equivalent to Z16971, and three additional Big Y results.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250
Click here for a brief description of the I-S17250 haplogroup

Thursday, June 27, 2019

2019-06-26 tree for I-S2703 (part of I-L161 "Isles")

Click here to download our 2019-06026 tree for I-S2703

We have created a new tree for the more specific I-A2330 branch (click here).
And the more specific I-Y14612 and I-S3723 branches already have their own trees.

This I-S2703 tree shows details about Big Ys and SNPs for all branches of I-S2703, except I-A2330, I-Y14612 and I-S3723

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S2703
Click here for a brief description of the I-S2703 haplogroup

Our first tree for I-A2330 (part of I-S2742 "Isles")

Click here to download our 2019-06-26 tree for I-A2330

I-S2703 is a large part of the I-L161 haplogroup.

According to current knowledge, everyone in I-S2703 belongs to one of two branches:
I-Y3723 which is found in Ireland and Great Britain, and which includes all of the Isles-C and Isles-D clusters.
I-S2742, which is a complex group found in Britain and Ireland, but also in Germany, Poland, Scandinavia etc.

For reasons of legibility we have created a new tree for I-A2330, it's part of I-S2742.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-S2703 which included information on I-A2330
Click here for a brief description of the I-A2330 haplogroup

Tuesday, June 4, 2019

FT16449 seems to be an important SNP immediately below PH908: 2019-06-04 tree for I-PH908

Click here to download our 2019-06-04 tree for I-PH908

This tree shows more information about a SNP named FT16449. It's immediately below I-PH908. We included FT16449 on our previous draft tree, but with this update we show that some additional branches can be placed in I-FT16449.

Unfortunately FT16449 is inside a so-called X-transposed region which is very similar (99,5%) to a region on the X chromosome. This means that FT16449 is not suitable for individual SNP testing.

But FTDNA has already added the I-FT16449 branch to their haplotree and to their Big Y Block Tree. FTDNA has also added the I-FT14506 branch to their trees.

I-FT16449 and I-FT14506 are both part of the DYS561=16 cluster. There are several additional branches in this cluster, but no one from these branches have tested FT16449 and FT14506 because these SNPs occur in regions that weren't covered by the Big Y-500 test. See the tree for more details.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-PH908
Click here for a brief description of the I-PH908 haplogroup

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

New branches and more details about FT14506: 2019-05-22 tree for I-PH908

Click here to download our 2019-05-22 tree for I-PH908

FT14506 seems to be an important SNP immediately below I-PH908. Several previously known branches can now be placed in the I-FT14506 branch. And several other branches are confirmed to be FT14506-. See the tree for more details.

This tree shows a new branch called I-BY154460, it's part of I-A22312, which is part of I-A5913. The known members of I-A22312 have paternal ancestry from Montenegro and eastern Herzegovina. The parallel branch I-A16683 prevails in eastern Europe.

This tree shows another new branch called I-FT16449, and a new sample in the I-Y56203 branch.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-PH908
Click here for a brief description of the I-PH908 haplogroup

Saturday, May 18, 2019

A branch found in Pomerania and in Shropshire: 2019-05-18 tree for I-L233

Click here to download our 2019-05-18 tree for I-L233

This tree shows a new branch called I-BY65456, it's one of 22 known immediate subbranches of I-Y4252. This branch is based on two Big Y results, one for a man with ancestry from the 1800s from Shropshire, England, and another man with ancestry from the 1800s from Pomerania which is now part of Poland (they were German speakers). The second man has STR matches with some men from a German speaking family from slightly further east in Poland, they probably also belong to I-BY65456.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233 and a discussion of the British and continental European men in different branches of I-Y4252

At our last update we added two SNPs that seem to be equivalent to Y4252, they are called FGC56848 and Y125772.

Click here for a brief description of the I-L233 haplogroup

Friday, May 17, 2019

A 9th Lindsay branch: 2019-05-18 tree for I-A8462

Click here to download our 2019-05-18 tree for I-A8462

This tree shows a new branch called I-FT36679, it's the ninth subbranch of the I-A16520 Lindsay family.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-A8462
Click here for a brief description of the I-A8462 haplogroup

The Big Y-700 helps resolve some branches below I-CTS1758: 2019/05/17 tree for I-L160

Click here to download our 2019/05/17 tree for I-L160

Y2177 is a SNP that is immediately below I-CTS1758. Some branches of I-CTS1758 are Y2177+ and other branches are Y2177-. The Y2177 position wasn't sequenced by most Big Y-500 tests and we only knew that this SNP was approximately equivalent to PF4088, CTS1758 or CTS11338. (Our earlier draft trees showed Y2177 as equivalent to CTS11338, and the current YFull tree shows Y2177 as equivalent to PF4088, I think YFull will change this at their next update).

The Big Y-700 sequences additional regions of the Y chromosome and I think we will continue to find new SNPs to resolve branches in the tree.

Our project has made a special effort to organize Big Ys for rare branches, and now the I-L160 tree looks much more detailed. But now it's difficult to see which branches are most common (at least as far as we can tell given the biases in the FTDNA database etc). And it's difficult to guess at MRCA ages from this draft tree, please refer to the YFull tree for this information.

Most of the branches on this I-L160 tree are quite rare. Probably the I-A19395 branches near the top are some of the most common and widespread, but there are only 3 completed Big Ys for this branch. Its MRCA probably lived well over 3000 years ago, but YFull doesn't have an estimate because only one of the 3 men has ordered YFull.

Another big branch is I-Y23412/Z43950 and its MRCA is only 2100 years ago according to YFull's calculation (this branch is part of I-CTS11851 which was formerly called the DYS462=13 cluster).

And of course I-CTS11338 includes some very large branches, but they are shown on our I-CTS11338 tree.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160
Click here for a brief description of the I-L160 haplogroup

Monday, May 13, 2019

More Big Ys for European I-L233 "Western" men: 2019-05-10 tree for I-L233

Click here to download our 2019-05-10 tree for I-L233


There are two basic branches of I-L233, they are I-A8462 and I-Y4252. All known I-A8462 men have paternal ancestry from Great Britain. But most I-L233 "Western" men belong to the I-Y4252 branch which has a MRCA of 1850 ybp according to YFull's calculation.

I-Y4252 has 22 known immediate descendant branches, 11 branches are named and contain more than one Big Y result, and another 11 branches are unnamed because they contain only one known sample. Eventually we will find other men who share some SNPs below Y4252 and we will be able to name more branches.

Most of the 22 branches contain only in British ancestry men, as far as we know. But we know that I-L233 is widespread in Europe, it's easy to identify I-L233 men from short STR haplotypes in scientific papers, YHRD.org etc, because I-L233 is characterized by some distinctive marker values especially DYS388=15. There are also some continental European I-L233 men in the FTDNA database.

Only a few I-L233 men with continental European paternal ancestry have done Big Y. Some of them belong to unnamed I-Y4252* branches. And some others belong to a few branches which are widespread and contain both British and Continental European ancestry men: I-A10033, I-A7111, I-A19385, and I-A417.

The I-P37 project at FTDNA has been organizing some Big Ys for continental European I-L233 men and giving support from our General Fund which comes from donations from our other members. This latest tree shows two new samples:

A man who lives in the Netherlands belongs to a new I-Y4252* branch, he can trace his ancestry back to the 1600s in the Netherlands.

Another man belongs to the I-A417 branch, he is American with paternal ancestry from Breslau/Wrocław in Silesia (southwestern Poland). I believe his ancestors were German speakers.  I-A417 contains no known men with British ancestry, but it does contain some men with Irish ancestry (who all have English or "Norman" surnames), and it also contains an American family with German speaking ancestors from Alsace-Lorraine, and a man who lives in the Netherlands with ancestors from the Netherlands.

The new sample shares several SNPs below I-A417 with an Irish-American man, but their common ancestor lived several hundred years ago.

Click here to see our previous tree for I-L233
Click here for a brief description of the I-L233 haplogroup

Wednesday, May 1, 2019

A Frenchman in a downstream branch typical of Sardinia: 2019-05-01 tree for I-CTS11338

Click here to download our 2019-05-01 tree for I-CTS11338

This tree shows three Big Ys that belong to the I-PF4190 haplogroup (part of I-M26). But Paolo Francalacci (2013) sequenced the Y chromosomes of 1200 men living in Sardinia (click here for Dienekes' summary and a link to the paper, free with registration), and found approximately 345 samples that belonged to I-PF4190, and hundreds of branches in the I-PF4190 tree. This draft tree shows only 4 branches in the I-PF4190 tree, because we only show the 3 men in the I-P37 project and a few relevant samples from Francalacci.

There are only 103 Big Y results for all of I-M26 (101 of these men are members of the I-P37 project at FTDNA), and I don't know any samples from similar tests at other companies. In addition to the men in I-PF4190, Francalacci sequenced approximately 119 Y chromosomes from other branches of I-M26.

The archived draft trees on this blog show the progress we've made in the last five years. But there is much more to learn.
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I-PF4190 had a rapid expansion at its earliest stages which has continued to the present day, at least in Sardinia. Most I-M26 men from elsewhere in Europe aren't closely related to the I-M26 men from Sardinia. But when we find non-Sardinian I-PF4190 men, they always share many downstream SNPs with men from Francalacci's study.

Many of these I-PF4190 men have German origin, and our draft tree shows two Big Y-500 results in the I-PF4432 branch, they share many SNPs with Francalacci samples 648-689. There are only two Big Ys, but we have individual SNP tests, Genographic 2.0 tests, and STR marker patterns that place several other men in this branch, or in related branches. Again, most of these men have German origin.

This updated tree shows a new Big Y-700 result for a man with French origin, he belongs to a different branch called I-PF4218, which also contains Francalacci samples 435-437. There is a man with Geno 2.0 results who also belongs to this branch, he has paternal ancestry from Malta. FTDNA's haplotree and Big Y Block tree contain some legacy information from before the era of Big Y testing, and these trees have some errors in the I-PF4190 section. I think FTDNA will correct these errors thanks to the new Big Y-700 result.

It's not possible to post all of Francalacci's information here, but click here to see the YFull tree for I-PF4188 which shows all three FTDNA samples, five of Francalacci's samples, and an additional scientific sample. At the moment the new result is only in a preliminary position, but I think YFull will update their tree soon. Click here to see a list of the Sardinian samples, YFull has added only a few of these to their tree.

Note: I-PF4188 is equivalent to I-PF4190, and all of the haplogroups listed in this post are also known by other names.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS11338
Click here for a brief description of the I-CTS11338 haplogroup

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

April 3, 2019 tree for I-Y4460 (belated post)

Click here to download our 2019-04-03 tree for I-Y4460

We updated this draft tree on April 3rd, but I neglected to post it.

This tree shows several updates:

  • a second I-Y4460* result. The two men have ancestry from Syria and Ukraine.
  • a seventh I-Y3118* result, for an American with likely Hungarian ancestry
  • a new I-BY80448 haplogroup which is below I-A21812
  • a new I-Y11624 haplogroup which is below I-Y10622
  • Two I-Y3118 men share a single variant that was reported in their Big Y-700 tests. Some I-Y3118 men have ancestral results for this SNP. Maybe this is a new branch below I-Y3118, but it needs further verification
  • a new I-Y39232 branch, the two members are known cousins
Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4460
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4460 haplogroup


Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Several more Big Ys for the Lindsay family, and a new branch: 2019-04-24 tree for I-A8462

Click here to download our 2019-04-24 tree for I-A8462

This tree shows 5 new Big Y-700 results for the large Lindsay family, and a new branch called I-BY58390.

Note: we updated this tree a few hours after the original post. The most current tree is dated 2019-04-24, it shows the BY58390 SNP as equivalent to Y138968

click here to find our previous tree for I-A8462
click here for a brief description of the I-A8462 haplogroup

Another Big Y for the DYS413=19-22 cluster: 2019-04-22 tree for I-Y11222

Click here to download our 2019-04-22 tree for I-Y11222

This tree shows a new Big Y-700 result for one of the largest clusters within I-Y11222. This cluster is characterized by the distinctive marker value DYS413=19-22. Most of the known members are from Great Britain, but a few are from continental Europe.

YFull estimates that the MRCA of this cluster lived approximately 3400 years ago. The cluster is currently called I-BY37467 at YFull, and it's called I-Y62258 at FTDNA.

The three previous Big Y-500 results are BY37467+ but the new Big Y-700 result is BY37467-.  FTDNA has updated its haplotree to show this new branch, and YFull will update its haplotree soon. There is another Big Y in progress for this cluster.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y11222
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y11222 haplogroup

Thursday, April 18, 2019

More PF4088+ CTS11338- branches: 2019-04-18 tree for I-L160

Click here to download our 2019-04-18 tree for I-L160

This tree shows two new branches, they are both part of the PF4088+ CTS11338- set of branches. This part of the I-M26 tree was poorly known before the advent of Big Y testing.

One of the new branches is I-A24294, it's part of I-CTS11851 which has had a big expansion in the last ~2000 years. The two members of I-A24294 are from Brazil and Colombia (the Colombian man was part of the 1000 Genomes Project).

The other branch is I-BY130413*. Thanks to a recent Big Y for an American man (Irish or British ancestry?), we know that BY130413 is older than several other SNPs that were formerly considered equivalent: A19300,  BY37328 etc. The A19300+ men have ancestry from Germany.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160
Click here for a brief description of the I-L160 haplogroup

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

A new branch in Disles: 2019-04-17 tree for I-L621

Click here to download our 2019-04-17 tree for I-L621

This tree shows a new branch called I-Y85772, it's part of what we nickname "Disles".

Disles includes all of the L621+ but CTS10228- branches, and "Dinaric" includes all of the L621+ and CTS10228+ branches. The name Disles comes from D for Dinaric and Isles for the British Isles. Many of the Disles branches are especially common in Britain and Ireland.

The Y67 marker pattern for Dinaric and Disles is similar but only Dinaric has the very distinctive value DYS565=9. The Disles branches all have DYS565=11 which is typical for all of I-P37.

Each branch of Disles has its own distinctive marker pattern and we can predict that some other people belong to these branches, even if they haven't done SNP testing. At the present time, all known Disles men can be placed in one of the branches on this I-L621 tree based on the pattern of their Y67 markers.

The new I-Y85772 branch contains two families, one from southwestern Germany and one from Sweden. They are not closely related, probably their common ancestor lived more than 2000 years ago.

The I-A17060 branch contains a few families from Britain and one American family which claims southwest German ancestry. This branch is called I-BY37319 at FTDNA and I-Y45825 at YFull.

The I-CTS10936* branch contains only one known family, they are American and believe their ancestor was from Germany or Luxembourg, or an adjacent area.

The I-Y50479 branch contains two families, one from southern Poland and one is American with ancestors from southwestern Germany. This branch is called I-Y44771 at FTDNA and I-Y44940 at YFull.

The I-FGC20479 branch contains 50-100 known families, all from Great Britain and Ireland. There are many known subbranches. Many of these branches are especially typical of the northern part of Ireland and Scotland.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-L621
Click here for a brief description of the I-L621 haplogroup

Wednesday, April 3, 2019

FT14506 may be an important SNP below PH908: 2019-04-03 tree for I-PH908

Click here to download our 2019-04-03 tree for I-PH908

At the present time, I-PH908 has approximately 28 immediate subbranches, 12 branches are named and 16 are called I-PH908*. This is approximately equivalent to one man who had 28 surviving sons, and each of these sons founded a male line that has survived until the present day.

But the Big Y-500 test does not have high enough resolution to detect SNPs that occurred at each generation. It's more likely that the founder of PH908 had fewer sons with surviving male lines, and that some of these 28 lineages are from expansions in the second, third or fourth generation after the most recent common ancestor of I-PH908.

The Big Y-700 test sequences more regions of the Y chromosome, and maybe we will find some SNPs that can help resolve the 28 branches into a tree with more structure. One possible new SNP is called FT14506.

Some I-PH908 men have FT14506+ results, and others have FT14506- results as indicated on this updated tree.

At this point, the men with FT14506+ results all have the STR marker value DYS561=16, as mentioned in previous posts (click here), DYS561 seems to divide I-PH908 into two groups.

But not all men with DYS561=16 are FT14506+, there is one I-PH908* man with DYS561=16 who is FT14506- (this FT14506 result isn't shown on the tree).

People in several different branches of I-PH908 are testing FT14506 at YSeq.net and we will learn more soon.
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This tree also shows three new branches, indicated in red

Click here to find our previous tree for I-PH908
Click here for a brief description of the I-PH908 haplogroup

New branches in I-Y18331 and I-Z17855: 2019-04-02 tree for I-CTS10228

Click here to download our 2019-04-02 tree for I-CTS10228   (link corrected 2019-04-07)

This tree shows a new branch called I-Y153039, the two members are closely related and have the same Greek surname. This branch is part of I-Y18331 which is almost completely Greek.

This tree shows a new branch called I-BY190177, the two members have ancestry from Bulgaria and Romania. This branch is part of I-Z17855 which is especially typical of Bulgaria and nearby areas.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS10228
Click here to see a brief description of the I-CTS10228 haplogroup

2 new branches and some samples from other companies: 2019-04-03 tree for I-Y4882

Click here to download our 2019-04-03 tree for I-Y4882

There are currently 663 completed Big Ys for I-P37 at FTDNA, more than 600 are members of the I-P37 project.

But I know of only a few Next Generation Y chromosome sequences from other testing companies:
two from Full Genomes Corp. (FGC)
two from Dante
one from Human Longevity Inc.
And of course there are many I-P37 sequences from scientific studies.

In some cases the same person has done a Big Y and a test at another company. Most of the people who have tested at other companies have ordered the YFull.com analysis (YFull permits a person who has tested at two or more companies to submit BAMs from all the companies).  And some of these people have independently shared their results with us.

This tree shows a new I-A10230* branch with one sample.

This tree shows a new branch in the I-PLE01 region:
PLE14, PLE04, PLE05, and BY30326 occurred first
and PLE01, PLE16 and many other SNPs occurred more recently.
You can also see the new PLE branches on the YFull tree, and eventually FTDNA will update its haplotree.

Click here to see our previous tree for I-Y4882
Click here to see a brief description of the I-Y4882 haplogroup

A new branch in I-BY128/Y5596: 2019-04-02 tree for I-S17250

Click here to download our 2019-04-02 tree for I-S17250

This tree shows two new branches in I-BY128/Y5596. Like all branches on this tree, they are part of Dinaric North (You can see Dinaric South on our more specific I-PH908 tree).

One new branch is called I-BY184129/Y159624, it's part of the recently discovered BY183912/Y159653 branch. There are three known families in these branches, two are from Greece and Russia and the third is American with possibly English ancestry.

This update also shows a new Big Y-700 result in the I-A2423/Y12911 branch, also part of I-BY128/Y5596. The Big Y samples in I-A2423 have ancestry from Slovakia, Hungary, western Ukraine, and Russia.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250
Click here for a brief description of the I-S17250 haplogroup

New English and Scottish branches: 2019-04-03 tree for I-L161

Click here to download our 2019-04-03 tree for I-L161

This update shows a new branch called I-A23615, the two known families have paternal origin from England. It's part of the larger I-BY60222 haplogroup which also includes a French Canadian family. In general, I-BY60222 is uncommon and we don't see any other families who might belong to this branch.

This update also shows a new branch called I-BY37264, all known families have British, mostly Scottish origins. The previously known I-BY37256 branch is part of  I-BY37264. These are all part of Isles-B5, and we can predict that many other families belong to these branches.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161
Click here for a brief description of the I-L161 haplogroup

Norwegians, Germans and English in I-A2293 (Isles-B2): 2019-04-02 tree for I-S2703

Click here to download our 2019-04-02 tree for I-S2703

I-S2742 is a major haplogroup and in previous years, most known I-S2742 men had British paternal origin, but a few were from Germany and Poland, and these European men seemed to be confined to one or two specific branches. Now we are finding Norwegian, Swedish and other European men in many different branches of I-S2742.

This update shows a new Big Y-500 in the I-A2293 branch. I-A2293 contains men living in England and American men with likely English origin. But the new Big Y is for an American with likely Norwegian origin, and there's a Big Y-700 not shown on this tree for an American with German origin. And two men who live in Norway have done SNP testing that places them in I-A2293.

This tree also shows some additional SNP information about other branches

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S2703
Click here for a brief description of the I-S2703 haplogroup

A new branch in Isles-D2: 2019-04-03 tree for I-Y3723

Click here to download our 2019-04-03 tree for I-Y3723

This tree shows a new branch called I-FGC7210, it's part of Isles-D2 (also known as I-Y4665 and some other names) and more specifically it's part of I-Y5280. The two families that are known to belong to this branch both have paternal ancestry from County Limerick, Ireland.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y3723 haplogroup

More I-Y4252* branches: 2019-04-02 tree for I-L233

Click here to download our  2019-04-02 tree for I-L233

This update shows a new Big Y-500 and a new Big Y-700, both are ancestral for all SNPs below Y4252 and they represent newly discovered branches. For the moment we call them I-Y4252*, but eventually we will find more members of these branches and we will give them a more specific name.

We currently have 11 named branches below I-Y4252 and 10 unnamed branches that are currently called I-Y4252*, 21 immediate child branches in total. It's possible that the Big Y-700 test will discover new SNPs that will group some of these branches together.

This tree also shows a new I-A10034 sample, his ancestry is from Germany, all known members of I-A10034 have ancestry from Germany, Denmark etc. except for one man born in northeastern England.

This tree shows a new branch called I-BY60350, the two members have the same surname and probably share a common ancestor who lived in the 1700s.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233
Click here for a brief description of the I-L233 haplogroup

Friday, March 22, 2019

Isles-C and Isles-D update: 2019-03-08 tree for I-Y3723

Click here to download our 2019-03-08 tree for I-Y3723

This tree shows three new Big Y-700 results and some minor SNP updates, all indicated in red.

In Isles-C2, the I-Y128131 branch was already on our tree. This result shows a second sample in the branch. In fact, there are three known Big Y results but only two are I-P37 project members.

In Isles-D2, this tree shows a new branch called I-Y88162, it hasn't been added to the FTDNA tree. YFull will add this branch to their tree soon, maybe they will call it by another name.

In Isles-D2, this tree shows a new branch called I-FGC7210. There are three known samples in this branch. Two samples are from the same man: he did a Big Y-500 test at FTDNA and a test at Full Genomes Corp. The third sample is from another man. The two men share at least two SNPs: FGC7210 and FGC7198.  We will update this tree soon.


Click here to find our previous I-Y3723 tree
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y3723 haplogroup

Monday, March 18, 2019

A branch parallel to the I-CTS11851 cluster: 2019-03-17 tree for I-L160

Click here to download our 2019-03-17 tree for I-L160

This tree shows a major new branch in I-L160 (which is part of I-M26). It's one of many M26+...L160+ PF4088+ but CTS11338- branches. These PF4088+ CTS11338- branches were poorly known for many years, except for a few STR marker clusters. One of the largest known PF4088+ CTS11338+ branches is I-CTS11851, it was formerly nicknamed the DYS462=13 cluster. The people in I-CTS11851 share a common ancestor who lived approximately 2600 years ago, and they are CTS11851+ Y24017+ Y23154+ CTS2755+ and they share approximately 22 additional equivalent SNPs.

The new Big Y-700 result is Y24017+ Y23154+ CTS2755+ but he is negative for CTS11851 and all of the other SNPs.

He belongs to a cluster of men with distinctive STR marker values, most of these men have paternal ancestry from the 1600s or 1700s in the southeastern USA, and they have many different surnames. But this cluster also includes a man from Australia who has more recent ancestry from England, and he shares a surname with some of the American men. I think these men probably all share a common ancestor who lived in England in the last 350-700 years, and the name of that common ancestor, and the name of the more recent man who crossed the Atlantic and founded the American family is the same as the Australian/American shared surname.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160
Click here for a brief description of the I-L160 haplogroup

Big Y-700 shows many upstream SNPs but few private variants? Updated I-L161 tree

Click here to download our 2019-03-16 tree for I-L161

On our previous tree for I-L161 we showed a new branch called I-BY53880. This branch is part of I-Y13338 which is known exclusively from continental Europe (Germany, Poland, Spain and Bulgaria and in one instance, from southern Iraq.

This tree shows another  I-BY53880 result. We now show three Big Ys for this branch: two are from an American family with likely German paternal ancestry, these are both Big Y-700 results. The third person is from a different family, he lives in Germany and he has Big Y-500 results.

The new Big Y-700 tests are finding many new variants/SNPs as shown in red on this tree. But the two American men differ at only two variants. Their common ancestor probably lived in the 1700s.

Click here for a brief description of the I-L161 haplogroup