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Major update reorganizes entire haplogroup I2 tree

Sunday, September 29, 2019

A new branch of the Driscoll family: 2019-09-29 tree for I-Y12072

Click here to download our 2019-09-29 draft tree for I-Y12072

This update shows a new branch called I-Y102853, it's the 10th named branch for I-A13665 (the Driscoll family from County Cork, Ireland)

This update also shows many new SNPs in red, these were discovered recently thanks to Big Y-700 results.

Our recent draft trees have shown Y91501 immediately below PF4135. But the position of Y91501 should now be considered uncertain. Kits 667572 and 261782 have no reads for Y91501 in their new Big Y-700 results.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y12072
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y12072 haplogroup

A third branch of I-PF4088: 2019-09-28 tree for I-L160

Click here to download our 2019-09-28 draft tree for I-L160

This tree shows a new branch called I-Y137889, it's one of three branches below I-PF4088.

I-Y137889 is uncommon, the known members have Spanish ancestry, or they are Americans with likely British ancestry. They all share some distinctive marker values: DYS447=20 or lower, and DYS425=10.

The other two branches of I-PF4088 are called I-A17273 and I-CTS1758. For reasons of legibility, we have created a new draft tree specific to I-A17273 (click here)    I-CTS1758 is a very large group and it contains I-Z102, I-PF4189 and many other branches.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160
Click here for a brief description of the I-L160 haplogroup

Our first draft tree specific to I-A17273 (part of I-M26)

Click here to download our 2019-09-28 tree for I-A17273

For reasons of legibility, we have created a new draft tree for I-A17273.  

The I-A17273 branch is large and has many subbranches, it's found in Iberia but also found in Switzerland, the UK, Ireland and Germany,  and even in northern Poland, Sweden, and Finland. I-A17273 was completely unknown before Big Y testing, and there is still much to learn about this haplogroup.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160, which included information on I-A17273
Click here for a brief description of the I-A17273 haplogroup

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

FT10545 unites two haplogroups below I-Y3106: 2019-09-24 tree for I-Y4460

Click here to download our  2019-09-24 draft tree for I-Y4460

On our 2019-08-20 draft tree for I-Y4460, we added a new branch below I-Y3106 (click here). The new branch was called I-FT9301 and it contained three samples. All three samples were FT9301+ and FT10545+.

After some new Big Y-700 results,  FT9301 is still found only in these three samples. But FT10545 is found in a wider group: the I-Y91535 haplogroup is also FT10545+.

This updated tree shows I-FT10545 immediately below I-Y3106 (and I-Y3106 is also known as I-B57 because Y3106 and B57 are currently phylogenetically equivalent). And I-FT10545 is the parent of I-Y91535 and I-FT9301.

There are several additional branches of I-Y3106, and at least one member of each branch has FT10545- results. (These branches are I-FT78951, I-Y3118, I-S8201, I-A6106 and I-Y47356)

Note: FT10545 is well sampled in Big Y-700 tests and some Big Y-500 tests contain a few reads of FT10545. As shown on our draft tree, FT10545 occurs at ChrY position (Hg38):17349392 G to A. FTDNA's Big Y Results page doesn't currently display information for FT10545. To see your result for FT10545,  change the Derived? box to "Show All" and enter YP1222 in the SNP name box (YP1222 is a neighboring SNP). When you see YP1222 displayed as a search result, click on YP1222 and you will see FTDNA's chromosome browser which shows the FT10545 position.
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Our tree continues to show Y3106 and B57 as equivalent SNPs. We know 4 Big Y-500 results for the I-S8201 branch, none of them have B57 result. We are not aware of any individual B57 test in the I-S8201 haplogroup. There is a Big Y-700 test in progress for someone in I-S8201, maybe this will show a B57 result.



Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4460
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4460 haplogroup

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Our first draft tree specific to Isles-C: 2019-09-20 tree for I-Y5455

Click here to download our 2019-09-20 tree for I-Y5455

For reasons of legibility, we have created a new tree specifically for the I-Y5455 haplogroup. This contains all of the branches that are sometimes nicknamed Isles-C.

Isles-C was identified more than 13 years ago by haplogroup I expert Ken Nordvedt. Everyone in Ken's Isles-C cluster shares several distinctive STR marker values. And we now know that everyone in I-Y5455 also shares these values.

YFull estimates that the common ancestor of I-Y5455 lived approximately 2100 years ago. As far as we know, everyone in I-Y5455 has paternal ancestry from Ireland, especially from central-western Ireland (counties Mayo, Galway, Roscommon, Meath, Westmeath etc). There are some American families with unknown Irish/British ancestry who belong to I-Y5455. One of these families is named Armstrong which is a famous surname from the Scottish-English border area, and many of these Armstrongs settled in Ireland hundreds of years ago. But Armstrong is also often an anglicization of Irish language names that are also anglicized as Traynor, Lavery or Lowry. See https://johngrenham.com/





Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723 which included information about I-Y5455
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y5455 haplogroup

Sunday, September 15, 2019

A Big Y for an Irish/Norwegian cluster: 2019-09-15 tree for I-Y11222

Click here to download our 2019-09-15 tree for I-Y11222

I-M26 has two major branches, I-L160 and I-Y11222, and there are also some I-M26 men who don't belong to either branch.

I-L160 and I-Y11222 are both found throughout Western Europe: Iberia, France, Sardinia, the UK and Ireland, Germany etc. But I-L160 is much more common than I-Y11222. And maybe more of I-L160's population is found in southwestern Europe, and maybe I-Y11222 has a larger percentage of its members in northwestern Europe.

There is a STR marker cluster that contains three known families: two live in western Norway, one is Norwegian-American and one is Irish-American from County Limerick (Limerick City was founded by the Vikings, as were all Irish cities).

Based on the STR variance, maybe the common ancestor of these families lived approximately 1000 years ago. Was the founder of this lineage from Ireland, from Norway, or from somewhere else? I-M26 is quite typical of Ireland but unknown in Norway other than this cluster.
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This update shows a Big Y-700 result for the Irish member of this cluster. He is in a branch with a previous Big Y-500 for an Irish-American man who doesn't match the cluster well, and their common ancestor must have lived over 2,000 years ago (it's difficult to calculate MRCAs when comparing Big Y-500 and Big Y-700). Our tree calls their branch I-Y45216, maybe YFull and FTDNA will choose different names.

Both I-Y45216 men have the distinctive STR marker value DYS413=19-20. (Most of men in I-M26 have DYS413=21-21 or 21-22). The small I-Y45216 branch has a much larger parallel branch named I-A14285 usually has DYS413=19-22. So the common ancestor of these branches probably had a low value at this marker: 19-20, 19-21, 19-22, 20-21 etc.

I-A14285 is most common in Great Britain but after we had found more than 20 British families in this branch, we began to find a few from France, Spain, etc. Sometimes we think a branch is restricted to Britain and Ireland, but eventually we find continental members.
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This update also shows a new big Y for Y15580. The I-Y15580 branch has a MRCA who lived 3900 years ago, according to YFull's calculation. All known members of I-Y15580 are Irish and British, mostly Irish. But it's a rare branch, and maybe eventually we will find continental members.




Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y11222
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y11222 haplogroup

Friday, September 13, 2019

Are these men from the same family? Updated I-FGC56815 tree

Click here to download our 2019-09-12 draft tree for I-FGC56815

This tree shows a third Big Y sample for I-Y105479. Two of the three samples have similar surnames, and maybe they are from the same family and use variant spellings of the original surname. One of the samples is the I-Y105479* sample already on the tree, and the other sample is the new Y105479+ FT100258+ sample (indicated in red).

But the two men only share three SNPs below FGC56815: Y105479 and two others.

Maybe it's just a coincidence that the two men have similar surnames, or maybe the family is many hundreds of years old. There are some other men with similar surnames in this group, and when they do Big Y tests, maybe we will be able to answer the question.

All known men in I-FGC56815 have paternal ancestry from England, and I-FGC56815 is part of the I-L233 "Western" haplogroup which is rare but typical of England and the UK.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-FGC56815
Click here to see a brief description of the I-FGC56815 haplogroup

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

2019-09-10 draft tree for I-Y4460

Click here to download our 2019-09-10 draft tree for I-Y4460

This tree shows several updates:

  • another I-Y4460* sample, it's from Bosnia and Herzegovina, and I think he has earlier ancestry from Slovakia  his family was "from Montenegro where they have been living for a few centuries, and before that they lived in Macedonia or Bulgaria" (edited thanks to comment below from Georg)
  • a new branch called I-FT78951, the samples are from Poland and Ukraine
  • another sample in I-Y88617 (all three samples are from Sweden). Two of the samples belong to the more specific I-Y109860 branch
  • I-FT16121 which is immediately below I-Y3118


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4460
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4460 haplogroup

4 new branches in I-BY128: 2019-09-10 tree for I-S17250

Click here to download our 2019-09-10 draft tree for I-S17250

This tree shows the following new branches, all in I-BY128


  • an I-BY172310* branch which contains a man from northern Turkey
  • an I-A5875* branch which contains a man from Belarus
  • an I-FT39645* branch which contains a man with ancestry from the former USSR
  • I-FT43555 which contains two American men, one family was from Budapest and the other family was Catholic from an unknown eastern German location. Note: FT42350 is upstream of FT43555, but the position of FT42350 is not confirmed. This tree shows it below A2423, but it could be at the same level as A2423



Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250
Click here for a brief description of the I-S17250 haplogroup

A new Isles-D1 branch, & additional new branches: 2019-09-05 tree for I-Y3723

Click here to download our 2019-09-05 draft tree for I-Y3723

This tree shows several updates, indicated in red:

---A new I-Y3723* branch at the very top of the tree. You can also see two previous samples in the I-A22306 branch. These three samples belong to the poorly-defined Isles-D1 cluster. At this point, Isles-D1 contains everyone whose STR markers match the pattern for I-Y3723 but don't match the pattern for Isles-C, Isles-D2, Isles-D3/D99 or I-A10514.

I-Y3723 now has 5 immediate child branches, and maybe we will find more branches when more Isles-D1 men do Big Y tests. This is a rapid expansion that occurred approximated 3500 years ago according to YFull. I-Y3723 is almost exclusively British and Irish, and it's especially characteristic of Ireland and Scotland.

---I-A10514 has two additional samples and new branches and SNPs. More Big Ys are in progress. We don't have a good nickname for I-A10514, it contains a family named Todd, so sometimes we call it the Todd branch.

--this tree also shows a I-FGC7210 branch in Isles-D2. But this branch with two samples was already included in our previous tree, probably we neglected to remove the red color.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y3723 haplogroup



Tuesday, September 3, 2019

A new branch in I-A1328: 2019-09-03 tree for I-Y4882

Click here to download our 2019-09-03 draft tree for I-Y4882

This tree shows a new branch called I-FT16342 (also known as I-FT27092). This branch is part of I-A1328, and the two known members have paternal ancestry from Poland and Bulgaria. This branch isn't yet shown on the FTDNA haplotree and Big Y Block tree.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4882
Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4882 haplogroup

Both Lindsay branches belong to I-FT11343: 2019-09-02 tree for I-A8462

Click here to download our 2019-09-02 tree for I-A8462

There is a large I-P37 Lindsay family from Scotland, they have already completed more than 25 Big Ys. All of these men belong to the I-L233 "Western" haplogroup, and more specifically to I-A8462 and most specifically to I-A16250.

But the Lindsay men belong to two different branches of I-A16520: more than 20 Big Y samples belong to I-F25958 and 3 samples belong to I-Y138968. These two branches have a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) who lived approximately 1000 years ago according to YFull's calculation. All the men in these two branches are named Lindsay, Lindsey, Lindesay or similar, or they have known Lindsay etc. paternal ancestry, or they belong to downstream branches which gives strong evidence that they have Lindsay etc. paternal ancestry.

There is a third known branch of the I-A16520 haplogroup called I-A16522 which contains men named Morrow, Murray, and Stanley.  But no Lindsays are known to belong to I-A16522.

You can see these branches on our previous tree for I-A8462 (click here).

As mentioned previously on this blog (click here), I could think of three possible explanations for the question, do the I-Y138968 men and the I-F25958 men share a common paternal ancestor named Lindsey? 


1) No, the men share an ancestor who lived before the era of surnames, and it's just a coincidence that they share the same surname and belong to closely related haplogroup branches.

2)Yes, the men share an ancestor named Lindsay, and the I-Y138968 men and the I-F25958 men share a more recent common ancestor with each other compared to the I-A16522 branch. But unfortunately the Big Y-500 didn't detect any SNP which would show the closer relationship of I-Y138968 and I-F25958.

3) Yes, the men share an ancestor named Lindsay, but this common ancestor was also the common ancestor of the I-A16520 branch as a whole. And at some later date the men in the I-A16522 branch adopted different surnames. Therefore, Murray, Morrow, Stanley etc. had a paternal ancestor named Lindsay who lived several hundred years ago.

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Luckily the Big Y-700 test has higher resolution because it sequences more regions of the Y chromosome, and several Big Y-700 tests discovered a new SNP called FT11343. As shown on our new tree, the new FT11343 branch contains both Lindsay branches (I-F2595 and I-Y138968) and the  I-A16522 branch which contains no Lindsays is FT11343-. FTDNA has added this branch to their tree and probably YFull will add it soon.

A new branch in I-Z113 and several new SNPs: 2019-09-01 tree for I-CTS11338

Click here to download our 2019-09-01 draft tree I-CTS11338

This update shows a new branch called I-BY61594, it's part of I-Z113 but it's not yet on the FTDNA tree. The two known members of I-BY61594 have paternal ancestry from Mexico (probably Spain in earlier generations) and the USA (earlier ancestry unknown).

This tree also shows several new SNPs, indicated in red.  One of these SNPs is called Z27247 and it's equivalent to I-Z102: the only known Z102+ Z113- man is Z27247+, and men in three different branches of Z103+ Z113+ are also Z27247+. And a man who is Z118+ Z102- is Z27247-.

FTDNA's haplotree and Big Y Block Tree show Z27247 and some other SNPs in incorrect positions, probably they will correct this soon.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS11338
Click here for a brief description of the I-CTS11338 haplogroup