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Major update reorganizes entire haplogroup I2 tree

Monday, December 31, 2018

Another old branch of I-PF6950: 2018-12-29 tree for I-F1295

Click here to download our 2018-12-29 tree for I-F1295

All known I-PF6950 men belong to the I-PF4419 haplogroup, except for 17 men who were part of Paolo Francalacci's study of 1200 Y chromosomes from Sardinia.

This update shows a new I-PH4419* branch, the person tested has ancestry from Sicily. The I-PH4419 haplogroup had a rapid expansion approximately 2800 years ago, according to YFull's calculation. There are now 7 known immediate descendant branches of I-PH4419, three of these branches share a single additional SNP: PH1671.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-F1295

Click here for a brief description of the I-F1295 haplogroup

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

One Big Y resolves 26 SNPs and discovers 40 new variants: 2018-12-26 tree for I-L160

Click here to download our 2018-12-26 tree for I-L160

This tree shows a third Big Y for the I-BY37343 branch. Previously 25 SNPs were considered to be equivalent to BY37343. Thanks to this Big Y we have learned that only 18 SNPs are equivalent to BY37343. The other 8 SNPs occurred more recently, and they are found in only of the three  I-BY37343 Big Y results.

The three men have paternal ancestry from the colonial USA and Canada: one traces his ancestry to France, one to southern England, and the third has likely English ancestry.

This tree also shows new information about several SNPs in the major I-CTS11851 branch.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160

Click here for a brief description of the I-L160 haplogroup

A Croatian branch of I-A10033: 2018-12-24 tree for I-L233

Click here to download our 2018-12-24 tree for I-L233

Beginning with this update, we have moved our I-A8462 information to a new tree, click here to find it. At this point, all known I-A8462 members have paternal ancestry from Great Britain.

The other members of I-L233 belong to the I-Y4252 branch which is found in Great Britain and in continental Europe. I-Y4252 rapidly expanded into 11 named branches and 8 unnamed branches, as shown on this tree, and probably we will find more branches. All of these branches have been found in Great Britain, which is partly a reflection of the origin of most FTDNA customers.

Only one branch, I-A10033, is largely continental European. One branch of I-A10033 is called I-A10034, and it contains men with ancestry from Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein (Germany), northwestern Germany and the Netherlands. I-A10034 only contains one known man with British origin, he is from Northeastern England which was an area settled by Danes more than 1000 years ago, and he has a family tradition of ancient Danish origin.

This tree shows a second branch of I-A10033, it's called I-Y60701. The two known members have paternal ancestry from modern Croatia: one from the Istria peninsula and one from the hinterland of Dalmatia. They aren't close relatives, based on the number of private variants found in each man, their common ancestor probably lived more than 500 years ago. They aren't close STR matches, they are a Genetic Distance=21 when Y111 markers are compared. One of these Big Ys was funded by the members of the I-P37 project at FTDNA.
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This update also shows new branches/SNP information for three families (Auld, Terry, Hawkins). Each of these families are represented by at least 3 Big Y results.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233

Click here for a brief description of the I-L233 haplogroup

Our first tree specific to I-A8462 (part of I-L233)

Click here to download our 2018-12-24 tree for I-A8462

We have now discovered many branches of I-L233 "Western", too many to fit on one tree. Today we have created this new tree specifically for I-A8462, which is one of two fundamental branches of I-L233. At this point, all known I-A8462 members have paternal ancestry from Great Britain. The second fundamental branch of I-L233 is I-Y4252 which contains members from Great Britain and from continental Europe. You can see details about I-Y4252 on our I-L233 tree, click here to find it.

This new I-A8462 tree shows two new branches: I-Y85375 and  I-BY111621. Both are part of the large Lindsay family branch (I-F25958).



Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233, which contained information on I-A8462.

Click here to see a brief description of the I-A8462 haplogroup

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

3 Big Ys for Isles-C: 2018-12-20 tree for I-Y3723

Click here to download our 2018-12-20 tree for I-Y3723

This tree shows three new Big Y results in the Isles-C branch.

  • There is a new branch called I-Y63687 (part of Isles-C1). It contains a man with ancestry from County Meath, Ireland and a large cluster of men with southeastern US ancestry
  • There is a second I-FGC14458*/Y5452* result. This FGC14458+/Y4252+ but FGC14457-/Y5451- group is sometimes called Isles-C3, the known members are from County Roscommon and County Kerry, Ireland.
  • The I-Y45719 branch (part of Isles-C2) has a third member, he's closely related to one of the exisiting members.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723

Click here for a brief description of the I-Y3723 haplogroup

More details about the largest branch of Disles: updated I-L621 tree

Click here to download our 2018-12-20 tree for I-L621

This tree shows more details about the largest branch of "Disles". The Disles cluster includes everyone who is L621+ but CTS10228-. The Disles branches have the marker value DYS565=11 while the L621+ CTS10228+ "Dinaric" branches have the marker value DYS565=9.

The name Disles comes from D (Dinaric-like) and Isles (British Isles), and most known Disles men have Irish, Scottish or English ancestry. But we also have found Disles men from southwestern Germany, Sweden, and southern Poland.

Several branches of Disles are found in Great Britain and Ireland, but most of these branches are very rare.

The most common branch of Disles at this point is I-FGC20479, which has only been found in Britain and Ireland. It's especially typical of Northern Ireland and Scotland. Most members of I-FGC20479 in Northern Ireland probably aren't recent arrivals from Scotland because some of these people are from traditionally Irish-speaking Roman Catholic families. And most members of I-FGC20479 in Scotland probably aren't recent arrivals from Ireland.

This update shows two new branches. One branch is called I-Y60783 and it contains two Big Y results for a family from Northern Ireland. Their ancestor lived several hundred years ago, according to the number of unique variants reported in each Big Y. Only one kit number is shown on the tree, because only one person is a member of the I-P37 project at FTDNA.

This tree also shows a branch called I-Y66580, which includes the I-Y60783 branch and also a branch containing several men with Scottish ancestry.

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The YFull tree for I-L621 has been updated recently, it now shows two samples that are L621+ but CTS10936-. These two samples have been on our blog's I-L621 tree for more than a year, they are the two samples in the I-A17060 branch. One of these sample has ancestry from London, England and the other sample is American with ancestry from southwestern Germany. FTDNA calls this branch I-BY37319. In a few days, YFull will create a new branch for these two samples and I will edit this post.
https://yfull.com/tree/I-L621/

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L621

Click here to see a brief description of the I-L621 haplogroup

Thursday, December 13, 2018

Brief description of the haplogroups on our trees

Below you can find brief descriptions of the haplogroups shown on our trees. For example, if you can't remember if I-S2703 is part of I-CTS10228 or I-L161, this list will answer that question.  Scroll down (the haplogroups are in alphabetical order) or use your browser's search function.

I don't intend this list to fully describe the distribution, SNPs, and age of the various branches. You can see more information by clicking here to go to the Eupedia page for I2.

Here is an easy way to determine the position of a SNP:
Go to the YFull tree at https://www.yfull.com/tree/
Click Search at upper right, and enter the SNP, for example S2703
You will see a green box at right which lists the relevant tree for this SNP, or an equivalent SNP, for example I-Y3749
Click on the green box and you will see the tree. Look at the top and you will see that I-Y3749 is part of I-L1498, which is part of I-S2639, which is part of I-L161.1 etc.
Of course, not all SNPs will be found in YFull's tree.

I-P37 is a major haplogroup found throughout Europe. It reaches a maximum in Sardinia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and it's common throughout eastern and central Europe. It's also relatively common in Spain, Portugal and France.

Click here for our I-P37 orientation tree.

Formerly I-P37 was known as I-P37.2 because the P37 mutation occurs in haplogroup D (this was called P37.1) and in halogroup I (this was called P37.2).

For many years, only four SNPs were known in the I-P37.2 haplogroup: P37.2, M26, M161 and P41.2/M359.2. Two of these SNPs are important, P37 of course, and I-M26 is the branch common in Sardinia but also found in Iberia and throughout western Europe. The other SNPs are very rare and not very important: I-M161 is a very small part of I-M26 and I-P41.2/I-M359.2 is apparently part of I-CTS10228.

Because I-P37 is a very old group, several major branches could be identified by STR marker patterns. The four largest groups and their key marker values are:
"Dinaric" nicknamed after the Dinaric Alps in Bosnia and Herzgovina and Croatia. We now know that this group is equivalent to I-CTS10228. Dinaric has DYS385=14-15 or similar and DYS565=9
"Sardinian" which is characterized by YCA=11-21 or similar, this is equivalent to I-M26 (to be exact, the group with YCA=11-21 is equivalent to the more specific I-PF3981 haplogroup)
"Isles" which is equivalent to I-L161, easy to identify but no single distinctive marker value
"Western" which is equivalent to I-L233, has distinctive DYS388=15

All of these groups were well known from STR markers before any SNPs were discovered to define these groups. (except for M26 which was already known).

Some smaller groups were also identified by STR patterns.
"Disles" this group has markers very similar to Dinaric, but it lacks the distinctive value DYS565=9. Disles has DYS565=11 which is the common value for haplogroup I as a whole. We now consider Disles to be the group that is L621+ but CTS10228-

"I2a*-France" is now known as I-L1294 "France". Has distinctive DYS388=9.

"Alpine", now known as I-Y11949, it's closely related to I-L233 "Western".

"Northern France", now known as I-L880

and finally a major new group was discovered in 2017, called I-Y11949. It's M423+ but L621- and L161-. This group doesn't have a nickname and it's not shown on any tree on this blog. It's found in northern Spain and Portugal/the Azores.

I-A17273 is part of the I-M26 haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-L160 and I-PF4088. I-A17273 includes men from Switzerland and Iberia, and it includes the large I-A19395 branch which is characterized by the STR marker value DYS450=9. The I-A19395 branch is found in Great Britain and Ireland, and also in northern parts of Germany, and even in Baltic areas where I-M26 is very rare (Germans from northern Poland, and people from Sweden and Finland).

I-A2330 is part of the I-L161 haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-S2742, which is part of I-S2703. I-A2330 includes English men, but also men with ancestry from Germany, Norway etc. It's a small haplogroup.

I-A8462 is one of two fundamental branches of I-L233 "Western". At this point, all known I-A8462 members have paternal ancestry from Great Britain.

I-A8742 is part of the I-L161 haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-A1150 which is part of I-L1498. The most recent common ancestor of I-A8742 lived approximately 6400 years old according to YFull's calculation. But it's a small haplogroup, and all known I-A8742 members have paternal origin from Great Britain and France.

I-CTS10228  is the very large haplogroup that is nicknamed "Dinaric". I-CTS10228 is equivalent to the cluster with the very distinctive marker value DYS565=9.  According to YFull's calculation, I-CTS10228 had a MRCA who lived 3400 years ago. In fact, almost all I-CTS10228 men belong to the more specific I-S20602 haplogroup which has a MRCA who lived 2100 years ago.

I-CTS11338 is part of the I-M26 "Sardinian" haplogroup. More specifically, I-CTS11338 is part of I-L160. I-CTS11338 contains the large I-PF4190 branch which is very common in Sardinia, and the large I-Z102 branch which is found in Spain, Portugal and France (and also in England at very low levels). I-CTS11338 also contains several small branches.

I-F1295 is part of the I-M26 "Sardinian" haplogroup. Most I-M26 men belong to the well known I-L160 haplogroup, and all known I-L160 men belong to either the large I-PF4088 haplogroup or the much smaller I-F1295 haplogroup.

I-F1295 contains three fundamental branches:

  • one small branch from England
  • one small branch that contains a single French-Canadian family
  • the large I-PF6950 branch which contains men from Greece, Italy, Sardinia, Spain, the Azores, Ireland and Germany. I-PF6950 also contains a cluster of men with Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish ancestry, one of these families claims earlier Spanish (Sephardic) origin. This cluster is the only known Jewish branch in I-M26.
I-FGC56815 is part of the I-L233 "Western" haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-Y4252. All known I-FGC56815 men have British (southern English) paternal origin.

I-FT11343 is part of the I-L233 "Western" haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-A8462. All known I-FT11343 men belong to the Lindsay/Lindsey/Lindesay family from Scotland, or they belong to downstream branches and very likely have a Lindsay paternal ancestor at some point in the past.

I-L160 is part of the I-M26 "Sardinian" haplogroup. Most I-M26 men belong to the well known I-L160 haplogroup, and all known I-L160 men belong to either the large I-PF4088 haplogroup or the much smaller I-F1295 haplogroup.

I-L161 has been nicknamed "Isles", it's one of the major branches of I-P37. But there are two fundamental branches of I-L161, and the I-Y13338 branch has been found only in continental Europe (Poland, Germany, Bulgaria) and also in Iran.

I-L1294 was formerly called I-P37.2 "France", it's part of the I-S21825 haplogroup. All known I-L1294 results at FTDNA have ancestry from Britain, France or Germany, and there is one man from Spain. But the I-L1294 haplogroup is easily identified by the distinctive STR marker value DYS388=9, in combination with other marker values. We know from scientific studies that I-L1294 is somewhat common in France, and in Catalonia, Spain, and it has also been found in Albania. This is a good illustration of the northwestern European bias of the FTDNA database, and a good illustration that there is still much to learn about haplogroups even in Western Europe.

I-L233 is one of the major branches of I-P37, it's nicknamed "Western" because it's usually found in Western Europe: Great Britain, the Netherlands, northwestern Germany, Denmark. But it's also found in Poland, Moldova, Croatia, Albania etc.

I-L621 is one of the major branches of I-P37. I-L621 contains the very large I-CTS10228 Dinaric haplogroup which reaches a maximum in Bosnia and Herzegovina and which is common throughout Eastern and Central Europe. I-L621 also contains several small branches known as "Disles", these branches are especially common in Great Britain and Ireland but they also have been found in Germany, Poland and Sweden.

I-PH908 is part of the I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup. I-PH908 is exactly the same as the Dinaric South cluster: this is the group of Dinarics with DYS448=19 and usually DYS449=30 or some other low value.

I-S21825 contains the several small haplogroups. The largest is I-L233 "Western". I-S21825 also contains the I-Y11949 "Alpine" group which is closely related to I-L233, and the I-L880 "Northern France, and the I-L1294 "France" haplogroups.

I-S17250 is part of the I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup. The I-S17250 branch is the most numerous branch below I-CTS10228, it prevails in Central Europe (Poland, Hungary, Germany, Slovakia, Czech Republic, part of Ukraine) and Southeastern Europe. This haplogroup encompasses a part of the Dinaric North cluster and the whole Dinaric South cluster.

I-S2703 is part of the I-L161 "Isles" haplogroup. I-S2703 contains the Irish/British I-Y3723 haplogroup (shown in another tree) and the I-S2472 haplogroup which is a complicated group that is found in Britain and Ireland, but also in Germany, Poland and Sweden.

I-Y11222 is part of the I-M26 "Sardinian" haplogroup. I-Y11222 is a parallel branch to the much larger I-L160 haplogroup. I-Y11222 is maybe more typical of northern Europe (Ireland, Britain, Germany) and I-L160 is maybe more typical of southern Europe (Iberia, Italy, Sardinia) but both haplogroups are found in all of these areas.

I-Y12072 is nicknamed "Isles-A", it's part of I-L161. I-Y12072 contains a few rare branches but most I-Y12072 men belong to the large I-PF4135 haplogroup which expanded out of County Cork, Ireland over 1500 years ago. I-PF4135 is now found in Scotland, England, the Isle of Man and Ireland.

I-Y14612 is part of the I-L161 haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-S2742, which is part of I-S2703. The I-Y14612 haplogroup contains the IsleS-B1 cluster and related branches, these are mostly from England and Sweden. In my opinion there's not a major distinction between I-Y14612 and other branches of I-S2742, we created the I-Y14612 tree because our I-S2703 tree was too large.

I-Y18331 shown on our I-CTS10228 tree. I-Y18331 is found in Greece and in the Jewish diaspora cluster.

I-Y3118 is part of the I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup. The I-Y3118 haplogroup prevails in eastern and northeastern Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Baltic countries etc.). All persons from this haplogroup are in the Dinaric North cluster.

I-Y3723 is part of the I-L161 haplogroup. I-Y3723 is almost exclusively found in Britain and Ireland, and it contains the large Isles-C and Isles-D branches. Many of these branches are especially characteristic of central-western Ireland, some branches are more typical of Scotland.

I-Y4252 is contains almost everyone in the I-L233 "Western" haplogroup. According to the FTDNA tree, I-Y4252 contains 26 immediate child branches, 15 of these branches are named and 11 are unnamed I-Y4252* branches that contain only a single member at present. (These numbers are as of April 2020 and they will change in the future). Most of the named branches contain representatives from Great Britain and Ireland and also from Continental Europe/Scandinavia. Our I-Y4252 draft tree groups some of the branches into the larger I-FGC56883 branch. FGC56883 occurs in a palindrome region and it won't be added to FTDNA and YFull's trees

I-Y4460 is part of the I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup. The I-Y4460 haplogroup prevails in eastern and northeastern Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Baltic countries etc.). All persons from this haplogroup are in the Dinaric North cluster.

I-Y4882 is part of the I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup. All members of I-Y4882 belong to the Dinaric North cluster.

I-Y5455 is nicknamed "Isles-C", it's part of I-L161 and more specifically part of I-Y3723. Isles-C is especially characteristic of central-western Ireland.

I-Z113 is part of the I-M26 haplogroup, it's maybe the most common branch of I-M26 outside of Sardinia. The MRCA of I-Z113 lived approximately 1600 years ago, according to YFull's calculation. I-Z113 is found in Spain, Portugal, the Azores and France, and there are also a few I-Z113 men from England.


I-Z17855 is part of the I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup. I-Z17855 can be found in mostly in Bulgaria, also in Serbia, Greece, Slovakia, Hungary and Ukraine etc. All persons in this haplogroup belong to the Dinaric North cluster.



Wednesday, December 12, 2018

All known I-F1295* men belong to new I-BY175009 branch: 2018-12-10 tree for I-F1295

Click here to download our 2018-12-10 tree for I-F1295

This tree shows a new branch called I-BY175009. It contains all known I-F1295 men who don't belong to the large I-PF6950 branch, and who don't belong to the I-BY63857 branch (this branch contains only a single French-Canadian family at present).

We can predict that the formerly I-F1295* men belong to I-BY175009 based on patterns in Y67 markers. All of the known I-BY175009 men have paternal ancestry from England. This branch is not yet shown on the YFull and FTDNA trees, maybe YFull and FTDNA will choose another name for this branch.

But most I-F1295 men belong to the large I-PF6950 haplogroup. This tree also shows a new branch called I-Y68070. There are two I-Y68070 Big Y results: one with ancestry from Calabria in southern Italy, and one has colonial American ancestry and a Scottish name. And another man born in Germany has strong STR similarities to the Scottish-American man.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-F1295

Click here for a brief description of the I-F1295 haplogroup


Wednesday, December 5, 2018

A fourth branch of I-Y4460: 2018-12-01 tree

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-Y4460

This update shows a new I-Y4460* result, this is the fourth fundamental branch of I-Y4460. This family has been in Syria since the 17th century, and they believe their ancestor was from modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, he came to Syria as a high official in the Ottoman empire.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4460

Click here to find a brief description of the Y4460 haplogroup

Many updates: 2018-12-01 tree for I-Y4882

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-Y4882

This tree shows several new branches:


  • a new haplogroup below I-Y16473, it's called I-BY130310 and the two known members have paternal ancestry from Slovakia
  • several SNPs in I-A20031 have been resolved, now we have an I-A20031* branch and a more specific I-BY31896 branch. All of these people have paternal ancestry from Poland/western Ukraine.
  • a new I-BY169307 haplogroup below I-A1328 and parallel to I-A7318. One of the members of I-BY169307 has paternal ancestry from Slovakia. (edit--and the other member also has ancestry from Slovakia)
  • a new I-BY103931 haplogroup below I-A1328. The known members have paternal ancestry from Poland and Russia.


These new results are consistent with previous results: I-Y4882 prevails in central Europe (Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Ukraine etc).


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4882

Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4882 haplogroup

More details about the continental European branch of "Isles": updated I-L161 tree

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-L161

I-L161 has been nicknamed "Isles" because it's much more common in Great Britain and Ireland than anywhere else. But there are two fundamental branches of I-L161, they are called I-Y13338 and I-FGC7107/S2639.  The I-Y13338 branch is known exclusively from continental Europe (Germany, Poland and Bulgaria) and in one instance, from southern Iraq.

This tree shows a new branch called I-BY53880, both members have paternal ancestry from Germany.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161

Click here for a brief description of the I-L161 haplogroup

Again, a Greek Dinaric who's not closely related to other Dinarics: new tree for I-S17250

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-S17250

This tree shows a new Big Y result for a man with paternal ancestry from Kythira, an island located between the Greek mainland and Crete. Before this Big Y, Z16971, Y12910, and Y5595/Z16972 were considered to be equivalent SNPs. The new result is Z16971+ and Y12910+ but Y5595-/Z16972-. Now we have a new branch, and once again, there is a Greek Dinaric who is only very distantly related to Dinarics from more northern areas.

This tree also shows two additional Big Y results, they are both I-A815* and they have paternal ancestry from Denmark and Ukraine.

As a reminder, every result on this tree belongs to the Dinaric North cluster. The details about I-PH908 (Dinaric South) are shown on the more specific I-PH908 tree.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250

Click here to find a brief description of the I-S17250 haplogroup

Another Big Y for the largest Irish branch in I-M26: 2018-12-01 tree for I-Y11222

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-Y11222

Irish men belong to many different branches of I-M26, but probably the biggest branch that is largely confined to Ireland is I-Y15581. This branch has a MRCA of 3800 years ago, according to YFull's calculation. All known members have Irish paternal ancestry, except for one English/Welsh family and one family from Iceland that claims Irish ancestry dating to the settlement of Iceland.

Thanks to a recent Big Y there is a new branch is called I-Y45584, FTDNA calls this branch I-BY151272. The two Big Ys for I-Y45584 share many additional SNPs but they are not very closely related, probably their MRCA lived more than 1000 years ago.

Click here to download our previous tree for I-Y11222

Click here for a brief description of the I-Y11222 haplogroup

Two new branches in I-Z17855: 2018-12-01 tree for I-CTS10228

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-CTS10228

This update shows two new branches in the I-Z17855 haplogroup:

Formerly, Y135658/BY37212 and A20030 were considered to be equivalent SNPs. But a new Big Y for a Romanian ancestry man is Y135658+/BY37212+ but A20030-. The A20030+ men are from Serbia and Montenegro.

There is also a new branch called I-Y68571, the two known members have ancestry from Russia


Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS10228

Click here for a brief description of the I-CTS10228 haplogroup

Monday, December 3, 2018

4 new branches: 2018-11-23 tree for I-PH908

Click here to download our 2018-11-23 tree for I-PH908

This tree shows four new branches:

In the DYS561=15 section:

I-Y59865, a very downstream branch of I-A356/I-Z16983. The two known members have ancestry from Germany/Poland (I think).

Y140560, part of I-Y32084. The two known members are from southern Bulgaria and southern Greece, and their common ancestor probably lived more than 1000 years ago.

I-Y84307. The two known members of this branch have the same surname and have paternal ancestry from Croatia. They share 6 additional SNPs that are equivalent to Y84307.

In the DYS561=16 section:

I-BY189804. One of the members of this branch has paternal ancestry from Bulgaria.

Click here to find the previous tree for I-PH908

Click here to find a brief description of the I-PH908 haplogroup

Tuesday, November 13, 2018

new branch in Isles-B5: November 12 tree for I-L161

click here to download our 2018-11-12 for I-L161

This tree shows a new Big Y result for an Isles-B5 person with likely British paternal ancestry. He is A1150+ A8742+ BY37270+ but A18003- BY37256-. There have been three previous Big Ys for the I-A18003 branch, but the new result is very distantly related, with a common ancestor who lived more than 4000 years ago.

Ken Nordtvedt identified the Isles-B5 cluster many years ago, but it's not very well defined by STRs. Probably it's better to talk about SNPs: Isles-B5 is roughly equivalent to I-A8742, and Isles-B3 is I-A8611, and I-A1150 contains Isles-B5 and Isles-B3. And I-A1150 is a major branch of I-L161, and overwhelmingly British and Irish.

click here to find our previous tree for I-L161

8 named branches below I-PH908: 2018-11-12 tree for I-PH908

Click here to download our 2018-11-12 for I-PH908

This tree shows several new branches (indicated in red).

In the DYS561=15 section:

I-Y97246, part of I-A356/I-Z16983. Two known families belong to this branch, one from the Czech Republic and one from Finland.

I-A22782/I-BY170184, part of  I-A356/I-Z16983.

In the DYS561=16 section:

I-Y52621

I-Y51673

I-MI26567,  I-BY106777: this branch is recent and defines part of a family from Croatia. It's part of I-A13912.  [haplogroup name corrected 2018-12-04]

This update also shows some new SNP information, indicated in red. And this update shows a new I-PH908* result, he is from Bulgaria. Like most I-PH908* men, he has the STR marker value DYS561=16.


There are now 8 immediate child branches of I-PH908, and an additional 17 unnamed immediate child branches which are listed as I-PH908*.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-PH908






Monday, November 12, 2018

another branch from Poland: November 12 tree for I-Y4882

click here to download our 2018-11-12 tree for I-Y4882

A Big Y that was ordered in December 2017 has finally been completed. He has paternal ancestry from Poland, and according to his Big Y, he belongs to the I-BY31899 haplogroup. There are two other members of I-BY31899, they are closely related to each other, they also have paternal ancestry from Poland/western Ukraine.

click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4882

Sunday, November 4, 2018

A Russian and a Greek in a new branch called I-Y158862: updated tree for I-CTS10228

Click here to download our 2018-11-04 tree for I-CTS10228

I-Y18331 is a major haplogroup below I-CTS10228, and most known I-Y18331 men have Greek paternal origin. I-Y18331 also contains a single Chuvash family and the large Jewish Dinaric cluster.

Now there is a new Big Y result for a Russian man with paternal ancestry from the 1600s from Tobolsk in Siberia. He shares two SNPs with a Greek man, and now we can name a new branch called I-Y158862.  The common ancestor of the two men probably lived more than 1000 years ago.

I-Y18331 now contains three branches:
the new I-Y158862 brnach
the large I-A2512 branch which contains the Chuvash family, the Jewish Dinaric cluster, the Greek-New Mexico cluster and several other Greek men
and an I-Y18331* which contains a single Greek man


Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS10228

A third branch in I-Z125: updated I-CTS11338 tree

Click here to download our 2018-11-03 tree for I-CTS11338

This update shows a third branch of I-Z125 (also called I-Z99). Most I-Z125 men belong to the large I-Z113 branch which had a large expansion in the last 2000 years in Spain, Portugal and France.

There are also two branches called I-Z125*, one contains an American family with likely German origin and the other contains a Spanish family.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS11338

A new branch in Isles-C2: 2018-11-04 tree for I-Y3723

Click here to download our 2018-11-04 tree for I-Y3723

This tree shows a new branch called I-Y45719. It's part of Isles-C2 (I-Y5451) which is very typical of central western Ireland. One of the men has paternal ancestry from County Roscommon, Ireland. But the other man has paternal ancestry from New Mexico with no known Irish connection.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723

Saturday, November 3, 2018

a fourth named branch of I-L161: 2018-11-03 tree for I-L161

Click here to download our 2018-11-03 tree for I-L161

This update shows a major discovery. A new Big Y for an English-American family shares 6 SNPs with a French-Canadian family. There are now four named branches of I-L1498:
the new I-BY60222 branch
I-A1150 which contains the Isles-B3 and Isles-B5 clusters. I-A1150 is mostly British and Irish with one French-Canadian family
I-A10029 which contains only a few families: one Scottish, one German-American and one American of uncertain European origin
I-S2703 which is the largest branch by far. It contains the British and Irish I-Y3723 branch (the Isles-C and Isles-D clusters) and the I-S2703 branch which contains British, Irish, German, Polish, Swedish etc. men.

Click here to find our previous I-L161 tree

mysteries of FTDNA's new public haplotree: 2018-11-02 tree for I-CTS11338

Click here to download our 2018-11-02 tree for I-CTS11338

This tree shows a new Big Y for a man with ancestry from the 1600s from New Hampshire, USA. He is CTS787+ and he also Y4389+ and Y4386+/Z27251+, these SNPs have been considered equivalent to CTS787. And he is ancestral for Z99, Z128, Z125 and many other SNPs that previously were considered equivalent CTS787.

FTDNA's haplotree currently shows Y4389 and Y4386/Z27251 as equivalent to Z99, Z128, Z125 etc. But I think FTDNA will update their tree soon to show the information from this new Big Y.

But FTDNA's haplotree already shows that CTS787 is the only SNP in its level, and Y4389, Y4386/Z27251, Z99, Z128, Z125 etc. are at a lower level. I don't know how to find older versions of FTDNA's haplotree, so I don't know when FTDNA made this change. FTDNA has a new public haplotree (click here) but I can't find information about any CTS787+ but Y4389- Y4386-/Z27251- samples.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS11338

Thursday, November 1, 2018

no new Big Ys but some interesting new SNPs: updated I-Y11222 tree

Click here to download our 2018-11-02 tree for I-Y11222

This tree shows some new SNPs that were confirmed thanks to the YFull.com analysis. These SNPs are shown in red. Some of these SNPs don't appear on the YFull tree and don't appear on the FTDNA haplotree, because they have few reads or they occur in regions of the Y chromosome that are considered unreliable. But these SNPs give consistent results, and we show them on our draft tree.

One of the new SNPs is called Y73815. There are three Big Y results that are quite closely related, they are all from men with ancestry from the southern USA and I think it's likely that all three men share a paternal ancestor who lived in the 1600s or 1700s. All three men are A19476+ and they share 18 additional SNPs that haven't been found in any other men. Two of the men are Y73815+ and one of them is Y73815-.

The men have different surnames, but it seems most likely that they are all descended from Jacob Flournoy, a Huguenot (French Protestant) who came to Jamestown, Virginia in 1700 from London. They all belong to the I-Y14720 haplogroup which is especially typical of France. But they each have a high number of private SNPs, and YFull calculates that their common ancestor most likely lived 550 years ago. But YFull says that the 95% confidence interval is 225 years to 950 years, and I think it's likely that their common ancestor was Jacob Flournoy.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y11222

Monday, October 22, 2018

three major new branches: October 20, 2018 draft tree for I-CTS10228

Click here to download our 2018-10-20 tree for I-CTS10228

This update shows three major new branches:

--there is a new I-Y18331* branch which contains a man with ancestry from northern Greece . He doesn't share any further variants with the other I-Y18331* Big Y result who has ancestry from Zakynthos/Zante island off the western Peloponnese peninsula (southern Greece).  There is a third branch of I-Y18331, the large I-A2512 branch which contains almost entirely Greek-ancestry men, mostly from the southern Peloponnese or nearby islands.

--there is new I-Z17855* branch which contains a man with Hungarian paternal ancestry from Romania (Transylvania). There are now five I-Z17855* branches and 5 named branches below Z17855. Most I-Z17855 men have ancestry from Bulgaria and also from Greece, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Ukraine and other countries.

--one of the five named branches below I-Z17855 was discovered very recently. It's called I-BY116090 and it contains a man from Turkey who has distant paternal ancestry from the Balkans, he did a Big Y test at FTDNA a few years ago. It also contains a man from Serbia who did a whole genome sequence test at another company. Both men plan to order the YFull.com analysis


Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS10228

Friday, October 5, 2018

More branches for Kinley and Driscoll families, new upstream SNP Y91501--Updated I-Y12072 tree

Click here to download our October 4, 2018 tree for I-Y12072

Near the top of the tree, you can see a new Big Y result and a new branch for the Kinley family, which has paternal origin from the Isle of Man.

Near the bottom of the tree, you can see a new Big Y result and a new branch for the Driscoll family, which has paternal origin from southwestern County Cork, Ireland.

In the middle of the tree you can see a new SNP called Y91501. It seems that two major branches of I-PF4135 are Y19501+. Unfortunately most Big Ys report zero or very few reads at the Y91501 position. But Y91501 is available as an individual test at YSeq.net

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y12072

Monday, September 24, 2018

Another branch for the Lindsay family: updated I-L233 tree

Click here to download our September 23, 2018 draft tree for I-L233

This tree shows the new I-BY111085 branch. The Lindsay family now has 5 known branches, and the common ancestor of these Lindsays lived approximately 1000 years ago. Even the more specific branches like I-BY111085 are hundreds of years old.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233

Saturday, September 22, 2018

2018-09-21 draft tree for I-CTS10228

Click here to download our 2018-09-21 draft tree for I-CTS10228

I-CTS10228 (more specifically I-YP196/I-S20602 ) has four named branches:
I-Y18331 which contains the better known I-A2512 branch
I-Z17855
I-Y4460
I-S17250

For more than a year, we have shown I-S17250 in its own tree (click here)
With this update, we have now created a new tree specifically for I-Y4460 (click here)

Now our I-CTS10228 tree gives details only about the I-Y18331 and I-Z17855 branches, and the I-CTS10228* and I-YP196*/I-S20602* samples.

This update also shows a new Big Y result in I-Z17855, it's closely related to a previous result, they belong to the new I-BY66632 branch. This update also shows some new SNP details in various branches.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS10228

first tree specifically for the I-Y4460 haplogroup

Click here to download our first draft tree that's specific to I-Y4460

I-Y4460 is a major branch of I-CTS10228 "Dinaric". I-Y4460 prevails in eastern and northeastern Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Baltic countries). All persons from this haplogroup are in the Dinaric North cluster. We now have created a new tree specifically for I-Y4460.

This update shows a major new branch called I-Y128456, the two known members are from Lithuania and Ukraine. This branch is not shown at FTDNA or YFull. Maybe FTDNA or YFull will chose another name for this branch.

This update also shows a new branch which FTDNA calls I-BY88077, part of I-SK1241. It's not on the YFull tree.

Click here to see our previous tree for I-CTS10228 which included I-Y4460. In the future our I-CTS10228 trees will not include details about I-Y4460

A fourth named branch of I-S17250: 2018-09-10 draft tree

Click here to download our September 10, 2018 tree for I-S17250

The I-S17250 branch is the most numerious branch below I-CTS10228. It prevails in the "Dinarics" from Central Europe (Poland, Hungary, Germany, Slovakia, Czech Republic, part of Ukraine) and Southeastern Europe. This haplogroup encompasses a part of Dinaric North cluster and the whole Dinaric South cluster.

The I-PH908 branch is equivalent to the Dinaric South cluster, and we recently created a tree specifically for I-PH908 (click here)

With this update we have now created a new tree specifically for the I-Y4882 branch, click here. Everyone in I-Y4882 belongs to Dinaric North.

This update shows a major new branch of I-CTS10228 I-S17250 which FTDNA calls I-BY142076, maybe YFull will choose a new name. The two known members have ancestry from Belarus. They are not closely related, probably their common ancestor lived more than 800 years ago.

This tree also shows a new branch which FTDNA calls I-Y83661 (part of I-BY128), the two members are very closely related.

To summarize, I-S17250 contains the following known branches:
-an unnamed I-S17250* branch (Dinaric North) which contains a single person with ancestry from a Croatian island
-the I-BY142076 branch (Dinaric North) which contains two men from Belarus.
-the I-BY128 branch (Dinaric North) which is large and prevails in Central Europe
the I-Y4882 branch (Dinaric North) which is large and prevails in Central Europe (shown on the more specific I-Y4882 tree)
-the I-PH908 branch (Dinaric South) which is very large and prevails in Southeastern Europe (shown on the more specific I-PH908 tree

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250

first tree for the specific I-Y4882 haplogroup

Click here to download our first tree that's specific to I-Y4882

Previously I-Y4882 was shown on the I-S17250 tree, but now we have created a tree specifically for I-Y4882. This group is part of Dinaric North and it prevails in Central Europe.

This update doesn't show any new Big Y results, but it shows new SNP information for many branches.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250 which included I-Y4882

Saturday, September 15, 2018

2 Big Y results and 3 more in progress: 2018-09-10 tree for I-F1295

Click here to download our 2018-09-10 tree for I-F1295

This update shows a new I-F1295* branch, thanks to a Big Y for an English-ancestry man. A second Big Y for this branch is in progress, and we will be able to name this branch soon. There are now 3 basic branches of I-F1295:
--the small new I-F1295* English branch
--the I-Y131800 branch (called I-Y131770 by YFull and called I-BY63857 by FTDNA) which contains a single French Canadian family
--the large I-PF6950 branch (called I-Y21970 by YFull) which contains people from Greece, Sardinia, Sicily, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Germany, etc.

All known I-F1295 men belong to one of these 3 branches.

This tree also shows a new Big Y result for a German-American, he belongs to a new I-PH1671* branch (part of I-PF6950). There are 2 additional Big Ys in progress for I-PF6950 men, one has ancestry from Sicily and the other has ancestry from southern Italy.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-F1295

Wednesday, September 12, 2018

Third Big Y for an Isles-B3 family: updated I-L161 tree

Click here to download our 2018-09-12 tree for I-L161

This tree shows a third Big Y result for an American family with roots in colonial Virginia. Two of the men share two SNPs that are absent in the third man. Probably further Big Y tests, and SNP testing by other men, could sort the family into several branches and help find a branch for their STR matches of other surnames, or their matches who lack good information about their ancestors

This family belongs to I-Y24829 (also called I-A8611). This is Ken Nordtvedt's Isles-B3 cluster which has some distinctive marker values including DYS392=12. I think all known members of I-Y24829 have British or Irish paternal ancestry. YFull calls this branch I-BY1236 and only 2 of the 7 Big Ys for this branch are on the YFull tree.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161

Fifth Big Y for an American family, second Big Y for a Canadian family: new I-L233 tree

Click here to download our 2018-09-12 draft tree for I-L233

This update shows a fifth Big Y for an American family. Two men belong to the I-BY153263 branch and three men belong to the I-BY172424 branch. But the BY172424 position is poorly covered in Big Ys, and maybe all 5 men are BY172424+. There is a sixth Big Y in progress for this family which might answer this question, or maybe we can ask YSeq to offer BY172424 for individual testing.

This update shows a new I-Y103977 branch which contains two Big Y results for two French Canadian-ancestry men. They have different surnames, but maybe they share a paternal ancestor in the last 400 years. The men share 5 additional SNPs (not shown on tree).

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233

Tuesday, September 11, 2018

I-A19395 is a large branch of I-M26 in northern Europe: updated I-L160 tree

Click here to download our 2018-09-11 tree for I-L160

When you look at our haplotrees, it's hard to tell which branches are most common. That's especially true because the I-P37 project makes a big effort to organize Big Ys for rarer branches.

If you look at our I-L160 tree, many of the general and specific branches are not very common. But we have learned that the I-A19395 branch is fairly common in northern Europe: Britain, Ireland, Germany, Poland, even one family from Finland. And maybe some Spanish families belong to I-A19395.

This update shows a third Big Y for I-A19395. All three Big Ys are for Irish/British men, but there is also one German/Polish man who received A19395+ results from an individual test at YSeq. And we can predict A19395+ results for many other men:

Most I-M26 men have the marker value DYS450=8 (part of the Y67 test). I-A19395 can be identified by DYS450=9. This DYS450=9 is also found in the related I-L1299 branch which is much less common. And DYS450=9 is also found in the distantly related I-F1295* branch. These other branches can be easily distinguished by other STR marker patterns.

I-A19395 has a MRCA who lived approximately 5000 years ago, and there isn't a strong STR marker pattern for I-A19395, except for the DYS450 value. So we weren't able to identify this branch before these Big Y results.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160

Sunday, September 9, 2018

S19848 is below CTS10936 and above CTS4002: 2018-09-08 tree for I-L621

Click here to download our September 9, 2018 tree for I-L621

This tree shows a new Big Y result for an American who has paternal ancestry from Germany or Luxembourg, according to his family's stories. Before this Big Y, CTS10936 was considered phylogenetically equivalent to 5 other SNPs. The new result is derived for CTS10936 and 4 equivalent SNPs, but he is ancestral for S19848.

Thanks to this Big Y, we have a new branch of the tree and we know that S19848 occurred more recently than CTS10936.

This Big Y was partly paid by the I-P37 project General Fund.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L621

Friday, September 7, 2018

Four Big Ys for an American family: September 7, 2018 I-L233 tree

Click here to download our September 7, 2018 tree for I-L233

This update shows two new Big Ys for an American family, all four men belong to the I-BY55516 haplogroup. There are now two SNP defined branches of this family: two men belong to the I-Y94204 haplogroup and two belong to an unnamed branch defined by the variant hg38:12926290 C to A. Note: the information about this variant is preliminary and needs to be confirmed with further testing or more Big Y results.

If you compare this September 7 tree to our 2018-07-15 tree, you will see how the new Big Y results changed the placement of Y94204 and BY55516 and discovered the new variant at 12926290.

This update also shows an update for another branch of I-L233. Thanks to the YFull analysis we learned that two men share the Y54081 SNP as shown in red. FTDNA refers to this branch as I-BY33207, but BY33207 is found in the DYZ19 repeat region which is sometimes considered unsuitable for phylogeny.

Click here to find our 2018-07-15 tree for I-L233

Wednesday, August 22, 2018

updated SNP information for new I-Y144303 branch: August 21 tree for I-PH908

Click here to download our August 21, 2018 tree for I-PH908

This update shows some additional SNP information for the new I-Y144303 branch.
Y14403 is a high quality SNP and it's available for individual testing at YSeq.
Our tree shows two equivalent SNPs BY171718 and BY169079, and YFull shows an additional SNP Y151633. All of these SNPs are lower quality for various reasons.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-PH908

Monday, August 20, 2018

Major update reorganizes entire haplogroup I2 tree

Thanks to some recent Big Ys for the rare I-L416 haplogroup, there is a new level in the tree between M438 and L460 (and between M438 and L596). See this sketch of the new I2 tree:





And you can compare the new tree to Eupedia's March 2017 tree as shown below (click here to go to Eupedia's I2 page).




You can see on the March 2017 tree that there was a triple branch point at the earliest stage of the I2 haplogroup. But it was very likely that two of the three branches were most closely related, and now we know that the I-L460 haplogroup and the I-L596 haplogroup share CTS1799/PF3698/Z2645 and 11 other SNPs that aren't found in the I-L416 haplogroup. See the latest ISOGG tree for more details (click here).

(the I-L416 haplogroup is also called I-L415 and I-L417, the SNPs L415, L416, and L417 are different SNPs but they are currently phylogenetically equivalent).

The I-L416 results do not appear on the YFull tree, and YFull tree doesn't show this new level. But the FTDNA haplotree has been updated, see below (I don't know if FTDNA has a public haplotree).

The ISOGG alphanumeric style names have also been updated: I-P37 was formerly called I2a1 and now I-P37 is called I2a1a. But we don't use this naming system in our project: this blog is called I2aproject for historical reasons but we restrict this blog and our I2a Project at FTDNA to I-P37 only.

Thanks to the I-L596/I-L417 project at FTDNA for organizing the Big Ys and this update to the tree (click here to visit the project). The I-L417 group is very small and the known members have paternal ancestry from Germany, Italy, Scotland and Iran. Click here to see the colorized STR results page for the  I-L596/I-L417 project, it shows a few I-L417 men at the very bottom of the page (you will need to change the page size box at top or click to view page 2 of results). 

The changes to the tree are important: now we have resolved many SNPs and we know that M438/P215/S31 and approximately 21 additional SNPs occurred first, and CTS1799/PF3698/Z2645 and approximately 11 additional SNPs occurred more recently. If someone creates a better explanation of the new I2 tree I will post a link here.

A new Big Y in the rare Isles-B5 branch: Updated I-L161 tree

Click here to see our August 19, 2018 tree for I-L161

This update shows a new Big Y result, he is L161+ S2639+ L1498+ A1150+ A8742+, this is Ken Nordtvedt's "Isles-B5" branch. All known men in this I-A8742 branch have British or Irish paternal ancestry, except for one man with French Canadian ancestry. The new result is for an American with English paternal ancestry, and he shares A18001 and approximately 33 additional SNPs with two previous Big Ys. FTDNA has named this branch I-BY37270, and it's approximately 1800 years old.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161

Sunday, August 19, 2018

Finally, more Big Y results! updated I-S2703 tree

Click here to download our August 19, 2018 tree for I-S2703
Click here to download our August 17, 2018 tree for I-S2703

Our August 19 tree is most current of course.

The August 17 tree shows a new Big Y highlighted in red at the very top of the tree. This is the second Big Y for the "Isles-B4" cluster. Isles-B4 is a small cluster with distinctive STR marker values, especially DYS388=11, and Isles-B4 is found only in Great Britain and Ireland (mostly England). FTDNA now calls this branch I-PH3480. There is also an anonymous Irish sample from the P. Hallast study in this branch (ire-94).

The August 19 tree provides more details about the SNPs in the I-PH3480 branch, now that we have looked at the VCF file from the new Big Y.

The August 19 tree also shows a new Big Y for a German-American man. He shares two SNPs (A20828 and BY50244) with two English-ancestry men. But he has 28 private variants (SNPs) not found in the English men, and probably his common ancestor with them lived 3500 or more years ago.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S2703

Monday, August 6, 2018

minor SNP corrections, updated I-L160 tree

Click here to download our August 5, 2018 tree for I-L160

This tree shows some minor changes to SNP listings compared to our previous tree

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160

A French Canadian F1295+ PF6950- branch: Updated I-F1295 tree

Click here to download our August 6, 2018 tree for I-F1295

This update shows a new branch called I-BY63857. Both members are from the same French Canadian family and their common ancestor lived in the 1600s or 1700s in Canada. They share 50 SNPs below F1295 that haven't been found in any other family.

I-F1295 now has two immediate child branches: the large I-PF6950 branch that has been found in Greece, Italy, Spain, the Azores, Germany, Ireland, Britain (probably), and in some Eastern European Jewish families; and the I-BY63857 branch which is represented by only the single French Canadian family at this point.

There are two additional known F1295+ PF6950- families and we will try to organize Big Ys for them. We don't know their results for BY63857 or any of the other SNPs found in the French Canadian family.

There are two Big Ys in progress for I-PF6950 men.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-F1295

two German Big Ys in the very Sardinian I-PF4190 branch: Updated I-CTS11338 tree

Click here to download our August 4, 2018 tree for I-CTS11338

If you look at this I-CTS11338 tree, you will see some of the biggest and best studied branches of I-M26.

P. Francalacci's 2013 study of 1200 Sardinian men found approximately 464 men who belonged to I-M26. And 346 of these men belonged to I-CTS11338. You will see several branches on this tree, but all 346 men belonged to the I-PF4190 branch. We represent these 346 anonymous Sardinian men by a single branch with no FTDNA kit number listed. The YFull tree shows only 7 of the 346 I-PF4190 Sardinan samples from Francalacci's study. To represent all the Y chromosome data sequenced by Francaclacci, we would need to add approximately 152 branches and hundreds of SNPs to our I-PF4190 tree.

At this point I consider I-PF4190 to be exactly equivalent to the main Sardinian expansion of I-M26. The slightly larger I-PF4189 group contains some major branches found only in Great Britain, so I-PF4189 can no longer be considered completely Sardinian. But I-PF4190 has four known immediate child branches, and these have all been found in Sardinia, and three of them are known only from Sardinia, and all of these branches had a rapid expansion in Sardinia.

This update shows a new branch called I-PF4432, it is represented by two Big Y results: one for a German man, and one for an American with likely German paternal ancestry from the 1700s. This tree shows several SNPs in red that are shared by the two men, some of these SNPs are also found in some of the 346 men from Francalacci's study.

It's difficult to represent all of the SNP data because there are so many Sardinian samples, and Francalacci's Y chromosome sequences are not exactly comparable to the Big Y sequences, different regions of the Y chromosome were sequenced and we do not have access to the Francalacci raw data.

But based on the number of unique novel variants in each man, the German and the German-American man have a common ancestor who lived approximately 2500 years ago, and their common ancestor with some of the men in Sardinia lived at approximately the same time.

The two German-ancestry men belong to a downstream branch of I-PF4190, and their branch is well within the population expansion in Sardinia. From Genographic 2.0 test results, we know about another German-American family that belongs to a different downstream branch of I-PF4190, and we know a few additional German families (and one Irish "Norman" family) that very likely belong to I-PF4190.

In most cases, the common ancestor between I-M26 men in Sardinia and I-M26 men in other parts of Europe lived 4500 years ago or longer. But in I-PF4190 we see these much closer relationships. Is this evidence for an "out of Sardinia" expansion, that we noticed several years ago with the first Geno 2.0 results? (click here). And is there some special connection to Germany?

Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS11338

Saturday, August 4, 2018

A French Canadian in I-A1150 (Isles-B3/B5): Updated I-L161 tree

Click here to download our August 1, 2018 tree for I-L161

I-A1150 is a major branch of I-L161 "Isles". I-A1150 contains Ken Nordtvedt's well defined Isles-B3 STR-based cluster, his poorly defined Isles-B5 STR-based cluster, and some other men whose STRs don't exactly match either cluster.

Until now, all known I-A1150 men have had British or Irish paternal ancestry. The new Big Y is for a French Canadian man who is A1150+ and A8742+. He shares 7 SNPs below A8742 with an English man.

This update also shows two SNPs indicated in red: Y28217 and Y31657. These SNPs are equivalent to A10029, the three SNPs define another major branch of I-L161.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161

A new branch in Isles-C: Updated I-Y3723 tree

Click here to download our August 1, 2018 tree for I-Y3723

This update shows a new branch in Isles-C, represented by a single Big Y (shown in red).

Isles-C is a distinctive group which has a MRCA who lived approximately 2100 years ago. Isles-C is called I-Y5450, I-Y5455 etc. It's especially typical of central-western Ireland, as is Isles-D2 (I-Y4665).

Originally Ken Nordvedt named two clusters within Isles-C: Isles-C2 which has distinctive marker values especially DYS392=12, and Isles-C2 which contained everyone else. Over time we have identified several other branches as shown on this tree, but Isles-C2 (I-Y5451) remains the largest group.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723

Two Big Ys for Isles-B1: updated I-Y14612 tree

Click here to download our August 1, 2018 tree for I-Y14612

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y14612

Friday, August 3, 2018

Our August 1, 2018 tree for I-S17250

Click here to download our August 1, 2018 tree for I-S17250

I-PH908 (which is the same as Dinaric South) is part of I-S17250, but there too much information to fit on one tree. Click here to find our new tree for I-PH908.

Our new I-S17250 tree shows details only on S17250+ PH908- Big Ys. All the Big Y results on our new I-S17250 tree belong to the Dinaric North cluster. Of course some other Dinaric North Big Y results are shown on our I-CTS10228 tree (click here).

This update shows one new Big Y result, he has ancestry from Slovakia and he belongs to the new I-BY30333* branch. This update shows one additional SNP, BY30340, indicated in red.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250

A new tree for I-PH908 and a new branch for an old family

Click here to download our first tree specifically for I-PH908

I-PH908 is equivalent to the Dinaric South cluster. There have been more than 50 Big Ys for I-PH908, and we now have created a tree specifically for I-PH908.

This tree shows a new branch called I-Y144303. Two of the members share the same surname, one has ancestry from northern Dalmatia (Croatia) and the other has ancestry from western Bosnia and Herzegovina. The third member is from the United States, and his ancestry is thought to be from Austria (but maybe this refers to the Austrian Empire or Austria-Hungary, not the modern country of Austria).

All three men share three SNPs: Y144303 and two others shown on the tree. But their common ancestor lived approximately 1200 years ago based on the number of the unique SNPs in each man.

The two men with the same surname share 3 additional SNPs: A22770, A22771 and hg38:20906025 A to G. FTDNA has chosen to name this branch I-BY170480: A22771 and BY170480 are different names for the same SNP. Maybe some of the new SNPs shown on this tree will be found in additional families. The two men with the same surname share a paternal ancestor who lived a few hundred years ago, based on the number of private variants in each man (4 in one man, 1 in the other man), and their STR differences (Genetic Distance=6 when Y111 are compared).

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250 which included details about I-PH908. In the future all details about I-PH908 will be shown only the I-PH908 tree.

Click here to find our guide tree which shows the different branches of I-P37 and the different trees available on this blog.

Thursday, July 19, 2018

A Latin-American branch in Isles-B: July 18, 2018 tree for I-S2703

Click here to download our July 17, 2018 tree for I-S2703

This tree shows a new I-Y140515* branch, based on a single Big Y for a man with Mexican paternal ancestry. He is a distant STR marker match to a man from Chile.

This tree also shows a more specific I-S2624 branch which contains two Big Ys for an American family that is supposed to have ancestry from England in the 1600s. This branch also contains someone in the Public Genomes Project, that's why many of these SNPs were given S series SNP names many years ago. Click here for my earlier post with more details.

The Mexican man has 18 private variants that weren't found in the I-S2624 Big Ys (these variants aren't shown on the tree).  Based on this number, we would estimate that the common ancestor of I-Y140515 lived a little more than 2000 years ago. But the I-S2624 Big Ys share 35 variants that weren't found in the Mexican man's Big Y. This points to a more ancient common ancestor of I-Y1450515. The Y111 markers for the two groups are very different, so maybe the common ancestor lived several thousand years ago.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S2703

Tuesday, July 17, 2018

A new branch in Disles: July 17, 2018 tree for I-L621

Click here to download our July 17, 2018 tree for I-L621

This I-L621 tree shows the Disles branches: the branches that are L621+ but CTS10228-. There are many different Disles branches, and I am sure we will continue to find more branches. Some branches are found only in Great Britain and Ireland, and some have been found only in continental Europe (Germany, Poland and Sweden).

This update shows a new branch called I-Y50479, it is part of I-CTS4002. The two known members have paternal ancestry from Germany and southern Poland. Their common ancestor lived more than 2000 years ago.

This new I-Y50479  Big Y was funded from our General Fund, which comes from donations from other I-P37 Project members.

This update also shows more details about the SNPs in the I-A17060 branch.

Here is a summary of the known Disles branches:

L621+ A17060+ (CTS10936-): a small group, all known members have ancestry from Britain/Ireland
L621+ CTS10936+ CTS4002-: one Big Y result for a man with western German ancestry, and probably a Swedish family that hasn't done SNP testing
L621+ CTS10936+ CTS4002+ Y50479+: one man with ancestry from Germany, one man from southern Poland
L621 CTS10936+ CTS4002+ FGC20479+: a large group, all known members have ancestry from Britain/Ireland

Almost all known Disles men have ancestry from Britain or Ireland, and they can be placed in I-A17060 or I-FGC20479  based on their Y-DNA STR marker values. There are only a handful of continental European men who are known to belong to Disles, and most of them are listed above. There is one German-American man who is currently doing SNP testing to determine his branch.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L621

Monday, July 16, 2018

More details about the I-Z27025 branch: updated I-L160 tree

Click here to see our July 15, 2018 tree for I-L160

Update August 6, 2018: the link above has been corrected. Note: if you download the tree at the link above, you will see the date 2018-07-02 on the upper left corner of the tree, but I think this tree was prepared on 2018-07-15

Our I-L160 tree became too large and we moved the more specific I-CTS11338 branch to a tree of its own, click here for more information.

This update shows additional SNP information for the I-CTS11338 branch.

This update gives more details about the I-Z27025 branch. It contains 5 men with recent Sardinian ancestry, four of these are anonymous samples from the Francalacci (2013) study, and one is a member of our FTDNA project. This branch also contains three American families: one believes he has Irish ancestry. A second family is a distant STR match and has ancestry from Belgium. The third family is more distantly related, it contains several members and is probably English origin.

The three American families share distinctive STR marker values with our Sardinian project member, so we expected that this was one of the small Sardinian I-M26 branches in Francalacci's study, and we sponsored a Big Y for one of our American members with our General Fund money.

The American shares 11 SNPs with Francalacci's samples 315-318. Very likely the other two American families share all of these SNPs. Our Sardinian project member very likely shares all of these, and maybe he shares additional SNPs with some or all of samples 315-318.

Our American project member has 37 private SNPs that weren't found in the Sardinian samples, so any common ancestor with the Sardinian men would have lived more than 4000 years ago.

Click here to see our previous tree for I-L160

A new tree for I-CTS11338/PF4091 (part of I-M26 and I-L160)

Click here to see our first draft tree for I-CTS11338

Our I-L160 tree became too large to fit on one page, so we create a new tree for the more specific I-CTS11338 branch.

For many years I-CTS11338 was much better known than any other part of I-M26. There are two known branches of I-CTS11338: the I-CTS787 branch includes the large I-Z102 haplogroup which is young and usually found in Iberia and France. Some I-Z102 samples were included in the 1000 Genomes project, and some SNPs from these samples were added to the Genographic 2.0 test (original version).

I-CTS787 has not been found in Sardinia, and its overwhelmingly Spanish, Portuguese and French. There are a few I-CTS787 members who were born in England with clear English ancestry, and some Americans with likely German ancestry. This tree shows a new branch for an American family with likely English ancestry.

The second major branch of I-CTS11338 is called I-PF4189. This branch is well known because approximately 75% of I-M26 men in Sardinia belong to I-PF4189, and Francalacci (2013) sequenced the Y chromosomes of approximately 346 men in I-PF4189. Some SNPs from these samples were included added to the Genographic 2.0 test (original version).

There are three known branches of I-PF4189. Two of these branches are known only from Great Britain: I-A19487 and I-A12373. This tree shows new information about both of these branches.

The third branch of I-PF4189 is called I-PF4190 and it includes the 346 men from Sardinia, and some other men who have mostly western German origin. There is only one Big Y sample on this tree for I-PF4190, but we have many project members who belong to this branch, many have recent Sardinian ancestry, others have German ancestry, and other are American of unknown origin.

At this point we haven't found I-PF4189 men from Spain or Portugal. It's interesting that the men who are most closely related to the 346 men living in Sardinia are men from Germany, but their common ancestor lived thousands of years ago.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160, which included information on I-CTS11338

two families do additional Big Ys: July 15, 2018 tree for I-L233

Click here to download our 15 July 2018 draft tree for I-L233 "Western"

This tree shows a new I-BY68045 branch. The two men in this branch are American and they have 1800s ancestry from Alsace-Lorraine, they are close cousins. This branch is part of the I-A417 haplogroup which has no known representatives from Britain. The other 3 known families in I-A417 have Irish paternal ancestry, two of them have names that suggest continental European ancestry hundreds of years ago.

Most known branches of I-L233 have representatives from Britain, and in fact have only been found in Britain, this is probably due to much stronger sampling of British-ancestry men (The distribution of I-L233 as a whole suggests an origin for I-L233 in continental Europe)

The I-A16520 branch includes the large and old Lindsey family and some other families, all have Scottish/English origin. This update shows a new Lindsey Big Y result, he belongs to the more specific I-BY32428 branch. There are four known members of this branch, and three of the four share another SNP called BY132915. We will try to determine the fourth man's result for BY132915.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233

Monday, July 2, 2018

Another Greek branch in I-Y18331 (parent of I-A2512): Updated I-CTS10228 tree

Click here to download our latest tree for I-CTS10228

This tree shows a new Big Y result for a Greek ancestry man. He is Y18331+ A2512+ A10959+. He belongs to the more specific I-Y66192 branch along with two other Greek men, but he is ancestral for several SNPs that are shared by the other two men.

This tree shows the Y18331 SNP in italics (slanted letters). This is supposed to indicate that the Y18331 SNP is unsuitable for testing because it occurs in a repeat region.

This update also shows a new I-Y90421 branch indicated in red, the known members of I-Y90421 have ancestry from northeastern Europe.

A new branch in Dinaric-South: Updated I-S17250 tree

Click here to download our latest tree for I-S17250

This tree shows a new branch in Dinaric-South (I-PH908), it is called A22312 and the known I-A22312 members have paternal ancestry from Bosnia and Herzegovina and from Montenegro.

This tree also indicates that the I-PH1012 branch contains one of our project members who has Serbian ancestry, and it also contains the anonymous Serbian sample ser-21 from the P. Hallast study.

This tree also shows some other Big Y results, they are shown in red.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250

A French-Canadian in I-A8742: Updated I-L161 tree

Click here to download our latest I-L161 tree

Update August 4, 2018: the link above has been corrected

I-A8742 contains Isles-B5 and some distantly related men, until now all men in I-A8742 have had British/Irish paternal ancestry (mostly English/Scottish). Ken Nordtvedt named the Isles-B5 cluster many years ago but it's not very well defined by STR marker values. Two closely related men in Isles-B5 did the Big Y test several years ago, and they belong to the more specific I-A18001 haplogroup (which FTDNA calls I-BY37256).

More recently, a man with French-Canadian paternal ancestry did Big Y, and he shares 7 SNPs with a man living in England, this branch can be called I-Y55124, but probably FTDNA will call this branch by a different name.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161

8 SNPs define a Manx family: Updated I-Y12072 tree

Click here to download our latest I-Y12072 tree

Most of I-Y12072 belongs to the more specific I-PF4135 "Isles-A" haplogroup, which seems to have originated in County Cork, Ireland. But there are some families which left Cork more than 1000 years ago and flourished in Scotland, the Isle of Man, and probably England.

Two men from the same family from the Isle of Man have completed Big Y, and they share 8 SNPs, and this update shows their new I-Y79838 branch. There is another family from the Isle of man which shares many STR markers, and probably they also share many of the 8 SNPs.

As you can see on the tree, the closest relative of the I-Y79838 branch is the I-A19478 branch which is represented by a man with County Cork paternal ancestry. There are many families with Cork ancestry found in all parts of the I-PF4135 haplotree.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y12072

More Sardinian samples which share SNPs with project members: Updated I-L160 tree

Click here to download our latest I-L160 tree

This tree shows a new I-Z27030* branch. This is one of many branches in I-M26 which contains both men in Sardinia and men from northern Europe. This branch contains samples 315-318 from P. Francalacci's Sardinian phylogeny (I-L160), and it also contains a cluster of our project members who share some distinctive STR marker values, for example DYS442=11 and DYS438=11. The Big Y for our project member shares 5 SNPs with the 4 Sardinian samples. We will update the tree soon to show these 5 SNPs (one of them is called Z27025).

One of our project members who belongs to this cluster has a Sardinian surname, so we expected that this cluster was represented in Francalacci's study. The other members are American and list northern European ancestry (England, Ireland and Alsace-Lorraine). Based on the number of unique variants found in the new Big Y results, probably the common ancestor of the northern Europeans with the Sardinian men lived more than 4,000 years ago. We will post a new tree showing the shared SNPs soon.

This update also shows two additional Big Y results, and some new SNPs names (shown in red).

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160

Sunday, July 1, 2018

Isles-D1 can now be called I-A22306: Updated I-Y3723 tree

Click here to download our July 1, 2018 tree for I-Y3723 (part of I-L161 "Isles")

Ken Nordtvedt identified the Isles-C and Isles-D cluster many years ago, based on patterns in Y37 and Y46 tests. Eventually as Y67 tests became more common he was able to identify more specific clusters: first Isles-C1, Isles-C2, Isles-D2, and then Isles-D3/D99. When people did Big Ys, we found SNPs to define the Isles-D2 and Isles-D3 cluster, and we also found a new cluster/branch for the Todd family and their very distant relatives. And we learned that Isles-D2 is most closely related to Isles-C.

All of Isles-C and Isles-D is I-Y3723
More specifically,
I-Y3734 contains all of Isles-C and Isles-D2
I-S7708 contains Isles-D3
I-A10514 contains the Todd Cluster

and everyone who is I-Y3723 but doesn't belong to one of the three more specific branches listed above remains in Isles-D1. Therefore Isles-D1 is a catchall group and is not well defined by STR markers.

There have now been two Big Ys for Isles-D1 and they both share one additional SNP called A22306. The two men are very distantly related so probably many men placed in Isles-D1 belong to I-A22306. And probably some men who are currently placed in our project's Isles-D1 section belong to Isles-D3 or to the Todd cluster, and we might be able to place them in one of these groups if they upgrade to Y67.

This tree also shows more details about the SNPs for the Isles-D3 branches, and it shows a new branch in Isles-C2.


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723

SNPs shared with scientific samples: Updated I-Y11222 tree

Click here to download our July 1, 2018 tree for I-Y11222 (part of I-M26 "Sardinian")

I-M26 is most common in Sardinia, Iberia and France. I-Y11222 is a major branch of I-M26, but so far I-Y11222 is especially typical of northern Europe: Britain, Ireland and western Germany. The much larger I-L60 branch is more typical of Sardinia and Iberia.

So far there are 3 fundamental branches of I-Y11222: I-PF6947, I-Y14718, and I-A11096.

All three branches contain Irish/British men. As far as we know Sardinian men belong only to the I-PF6947 branch, and Spanish/Portuguese men belong only to the I-Y14718 branch.

This update shows a new I-Z27416 branch (part of I-PF6847) it shows some SNPs shared by Sardinian men and German/English men. Of course the common ancestor lived 4000+ years ago based on the Big Y results.

This update also shows details about SNPs shared by an anonymous Puerto Rican man in the 1000 Genomes project (HG01167) and two project members who have Central American ancestry. These three men belong to I-A20936 (part of I-Y14718).

This update also shows a SNP called Y140487 which seems to divide a French-American family into two branches.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y11222

July 1 tree for I-F1295

Click here to download our July 1, 2018 tree for I-F1295

This update shows a new branch called I-BY91692. The two men who belong to this branch have British names, but I think they likely have Mexican/Spanish paternal ancestry. One of the men is from Texas and from an adopted paternal line, and the other man is also from the southern US. The two men share some distinctive marker values, especially very low DYS448, with a large Mexican family.

I-BY91692 is part of I-PH1671. For some reason both men had only a few reads reported for PH1671, but they are PH1671+. If you look at my earlier posts about I-F1295 we had trouble placing these men, this was partly due to the PH1671 confusion.

Click here to find our previous tree for I_F1295

A new branch for Western-Isles: Updated I-L233 tree

Click here to download our latest tree for I-L233

Western-Isles is one of the only STR clusters in the I-L233 haplogroup. Western-Isles is a large group and it's only known from Britain and Ireland, mostly Britain. Thanks to an earlier Big Y for one Western-Isles man, we knew that Western-Isles was part of I-A7111. (and I-A7111 contains other British men and one Polish-American man).

Now a second man in Western-Isles has completed a Big Y. The two men share 7 SNPs and probably all Western-Isles men share most or all of these SNPs. This branch can be called I-Y138217. Because the two men share so many SNPs, we can be sure that the Western-Isles branch isn't closely related to the other branches of I-A7111.

This update also shows a second Big Y for an Irish family, the two men share L485 and six additional SNPs. Their surname indicates that they originated in Great Britain or continental Europe, but probably this family has been in Ireland for 600 years or more. The recent Big Y result has 4 private variants that weren't found in the first Big Y.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233

Friday, June 15, 2018

A major new branch of I-L1498: updated I-L161 tree

Click here to download our June 13, 2018 tree for I-L161

This tree shows two updates:

1) There is a new German-American Big Y result. He is A10029+ and he is ancestral for approximately 30 SNPs that were formerly considered equivalent to A10029, for example he is A10028-. He has only one name on his Y-DNA match list, and this match has a German name. This new I-A10029* branch has a MRCA of 6700 years or greater with all other known branches.

2) There is a new result in I-A10036 (Isles-B3). He is closely related to the large American Hale family, but it's unclear to me if he has a Hale ancestor, or if the common ancestor was before the era of surnames (he is not named Hale)

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161 which gives more details about the A10028+ samples

A new branch for Isles-B4 which contains a sample from P. Hallast study: updated I-S2703 tree

Click here to download our June 15, 2018 tree for I-S2703

This tree shows two updates:

1) There is a new branch called I-PH151. This branch is exactly equivalent to the Isles-B4 cluster, which is defined by some distinctive STR marker values, for example DYS388=11. This branch is rare and mostly found in southern England, but the Pille Hallast study (2014, Estonia Biocentre) found a sample (ire-94) in Ireland that shares the STR marker values and which has several SNPs named PH151 etc, these SNPs are shared by an Isles-B4 Big Y result. Another Isles-B4 Big Y is in progress, this one is a more distant match to ire-94
Click here to see the study"The Y-chromosome tree bursts into leaf: 13,000 high-confidence SNPs covering the majority of known clades"

2) There is too much information on the I-S2703 tree, and we have created a new tree for I-Y14612 (click here). I-Y14612 contains the Isles-B1 cluster which is maybe entirely English in origin, but it also contains some branches from elsewhere in Europe, especially Sweden

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S2703

our first tree for I-Y14612 (part of I-S2703 "Isles")

Click here to download our first tree for I-Y14612 dated June 15, 2018

New branches for Isles-D1, D3, and C2: Updated I-Y3723 tree

Click here to download our June 6, 2018 tree for I-Y3723

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723