Friday, January 6, 2017

December 2016 Tree for I-L161

Click here for the latest draft tree for the I-L161 "Isles" haplogroup.
To see a previous version, click here for my post from July 2016.

Towards the bottom of the tree you can see an important new branch. There is a new Big Y result for kit 23143 who has likely English paternal ancestry. He was called "Isles-A cousin" because his STR markers are similar to the Isles-A group. But kit 23143 was known to be Y12072+ and PF4135- and the Isles-A people are Y12072+ PF4135+. Thanks to his Big Y, we now know that 20 SNPs are equivalent to Y12072 and 14 are equivalent to PF4135, meaning that 23143's common ancestor with the Isles-A group was thousands of years ago.

There are no known men with markers very similar to 23143,  but there is another man who is Y12072+ and PF4135- and I hope to organize a Big Y for him eventually.

The new tree shows more details in the Isles-A branch including the new SNPs that have been found in the "Driscoll" branch.
The tree also shows new branches in Isles-C and Isles-D:
the I-A12374 branch is part of Isles-C1
the I-FGC14463 branch is part of Isles-C2
the I-Y5280 and more specific I-A10741 branch are part of Isles-D2.
Many people have already tested some of these SNPs at

There are some interesting Big Ys in progress:
two for Isles-A (one is very close the Driscoll family, and another is not close to any other Isles-A family)
Kit 206151 is a man from southern Iraq who likely belongs to I-Y13331 branch

The YFull tree has also been updated to v5.01 and it now shows the major I-A10028 branch, but the YFull tree is not as complete as our draft tree. The YFull tree calculates common ancestor dates based on unique novel variants found in each result. You can see that I-L161 contains two fundamental branches: I-Y13331 and I-S2639 and the common ancestor is estimated to have lived 7000 years ago. The I-Y13331 branch is rare and has been found in Germany, Poland, Bulgaria and southern Iraq. The people in I-Y13331 were part of Ken Nordtvedt's Isles-B group.

The I-S2639 branch has a common ancestor estimated to have lived 6700 years ago and it has several major branches that began expansions thousands of years ago:
I-S2703 (I-Y3749) is a large branch and includes all of Ken Nordtvedt's Isles-C and Isles-D groups and some of his Isles-B group. These groups are overwhelmingly British and Irish but there are a few German and Polish families who likely belong to the downstream I-S2742 (I-Y14338) branch. One of our project's next goals is to characterize these families better. There are also some Puerto Rican and French Canadian men who belong to very downstream branches of Isles-C and Isles-D and likely have last 2000-400 year ancestry from the British Isles.
I-A1150 (I-Y12993) is an uncommon group only known from Britain and Ireland. These branches were all part of Ken Nordvedt's Isles-B group. Several results on shown on our draft tree but they have not been submitted to YFull.
I-A10028 is known from only two families from Scotland and Ireland, these were  part of Ken Nordtvedt's Isles-B group
I-Y12072 includes the strictly British/Irish Isles-A group and the Isles-A cousins as described above.

The I-L161 tree is well known now, and in my opinion it's very strong evidence for a continuous presence of I-S2639 branch in Britain and Ireland for approximately 6700 years or more. Before Big Y testing we couldn't be sure: maybe Isles-A represented one migration to the British Isles, maybe IslesC/D came in a second migration thousands of years later. We have seen this in other haplogroups: some branches of I-M26 have been in Britain/Ireland for 4,500+ years and others arrived in the last 2,000 years. But now we see that all of the oldest branches of I-S2639 are found in Britain and Ireland.

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