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Major update reorganizes entire haplogroup I2 tree

Monday, December 31, 2018

Another old branch of I-PF6950: 2018-12-29 tree for I-F1295

Click here to download our 2018-12-29 tree for I-F1295

All known I-PF6950 men belong to the I-PF4419 haplogroup, except for 17 men who were part of Paolo Francalacci's study of 1200 Y chromosomes from Sardinia.

This update shows a new I-PH4419* branch, the person tested has ancestry from Sicily. The I-PH4419 haplogroup had a rapid expansion approximately 2800 years ago, according to YFull's calculation. There are now 7 known immediate descendant branches of I-PH4419, three of these branches share a single additional SNP: PH1671.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-F1295

Click here for a brief description of the I-F1295 haplogroup

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

One Big Y resolves 26 SNPs and discovers 40 new variants: 2018-12-26 tree for I-L160

Click here to download our 2018-12-26 tree for I-L160

This tree shows a third Big Y for the I-BY37343 branch. Previously 25 SNPs were considered to be equivalent to BY37343. Thanks to this Big Y we have learned that only 18 SNPs are equivalent to BY37343. The other 8 SNPs occurred more recently, and they are found in only of the three  I-BY37343 Big Y results.

The three men have paternal ancestry from the colonial USA and Canada: one traces his ancestry to France, one to southern England, and the third has likely English ancestry.

This tree also shows new information about several SNPs in the major I-CTS11851 branch.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160

Click here for a brief description of the I-L160 haplogroup

A Croatian branch of I-A10033: 2018-12-24 tree for I-L233

Click here to download our 2018-12-24 tree for I-L233

Beginning with this update, we have moved our I-A8462 information to a new tree, click here to find it. At this point, all known I-A8462 members have paternal ancestry from Great Britain.

The other members of I-L233 belong to the I-Y4252 branch which is found in Great Britain and in continental Europe. I-Y4252 rapidly expanded into 11 named branches and 8 unnamed branches, as shown on this tree, and probably we will find more branches. All of these branches have been found in Great Britain, which is partly a reflection of the origin of most FTDNA customers.

Only one branch, I-A10033, is largely continental European. One branch of I-A10033 is called I-A10034, and it contains men with ancestry from Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein (Germany), northwestern Germany and the Netherlands. I-A10034 only contains one known man with British origin, he is from Northeastern England which was an area settled by Danes more than 1000 years ago, and he has a family tradition of ancient Danish origin.

This tree shows a second branch of I-A10033, it's called I-Y60701. The two known members have paternal ancestry from modern Croatia: one from the Istria peninsula and one from the hinterland of Dalmatia. They aren't close relatives, based on the number of private variants found in each man, their common ancestor probably lived more than 500 years ago. They aren't close STR matches, they are a Genetic Distance=21 when Y111 markers are compared. One of these Big Ys was funded by the members of the I-P37 project at FTDNA.
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This update also shows new branches/SNP information for three families (Auld, Terry, Hawkins). Each of these families are represented by at least 3 Big Y results.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233

Click here for a brief description of the I-L233 haplogroup

Our first tree specific to I-A8462 (part of I-L233)

Click here to download our 2018-12-24 tree for I-A8462

We have now discovered many branches of I-L233 "Western", too many to fit on one tree. Today we have created this new tree specifically for I-A8462, which is one of two fundamental branches of I-L233. At this point, all known I-A8462 members have paternal ancestry from Great Britain. The second fundamental branch of I-L233 is I-Y4252 which contains members from Great Britain and from continental Europe. You can see details about I-Y4252 on our I-L233 tree, click here to find it.

This new I-A8462 tree shows two new branches: I-Y85375 and  I-BY111621. Both are part of the large Lindsay family branch (I-F25958).



Click here to find our previous tree for I-L233, which contained information on I-A8462.

Click here to see a brief description of the I-A8462 haplogroup

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

3 Big Ys for Isles-C: 2018-12-20 tree for I-Y3723

Click here to download our 2018-12-20 tree for I-Y3723

This tree shows three new Big Y results in the Isles-C branch.

  • There is a new branch called I-Y63687 (part of Isles-C1). It contains a man with ancestry from County Meath, Ireland and a large cluster of men with southeastern US ancestry
  • There is a second I-FGC14458*/Y5452* result. This FGC14458+/Y4252+ but FGC14457-/Y5451- group is sometimes called Isles-C3, the known members are from County Roscommon and County Kerry, Ireland.
  • The I-Y45719 branch (part of Isles-C2) has a third member, he's closely related to one of the exisiting members.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723

Click here for a brief description of the I-Y3723 haplogroup

More details about the largest branch of Disles: updated I-L621 tree

Click here to download our 2018-12-20 tree for I-L621

This tree shows more details about the largest branch of "Disles". The Disles cluster includes everyone who is L621+ but CTS10228-. The Disles branches have the marker value DYS565=11 while the L621+ CTS10228+ "Dinaric" branches have the marker value DYS565=9.

The name Disles comes from D (Dinaric-like) and Isles (British Isles), and most known Disles men have Irish, Scottish or English ancestry. But we also have found Disles men from southwestern Germany, Sweden, and southern Poland.

Several branches of Disles are found in Great Britain and Ireland, but most of these branches are very rare.

The most common branch of Disles at this point is I-FGC20479, which has only been found in Britain and Ireland. It's especially typical of Northern Ireland and Scotland. Most members of I-FGC20479 in Northern Ireland probably aren't recent arrivals from Scotland because some of these people are from traditionally Irish-speaking Roman Catholic families. And most members of I-FGC20479 in Scotland probably aren't recent arrivals from Ireland.

This update shows two new branches. One branch is called I-Y60783 and it contains two Big Y results for a family from Northern Ireland. Their ancestor lived several hundred years ago, according to the number of unique variants reported in each Big Y. Only one kit number is shown on the tree, because only one person is a member of the I-P37 project at FTDNA.

This tree also shows a branch called I-Y66580, which includes the I-Y60783 branch and also a branch containing several men with Scottish ancestry.

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The YFull tree for I-L621 has been updated recently, it now shows two samples that are L621+ but CTS10936-. These two samples have been on our blog's I-L621 tree for more than a year, they are the two samples in the I-A17060 branch. One of these sample has ancestry from London, England and the other sample is American with ancestry from southwestern Germany. FTDNA calls this branch I-BY37319. In a few days, YFull will create a new branch for these two samples and I will edit this post.
https://yfull.com/tree/I-L621/

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L621

Click here to see a brief description of the I-L621 haplogroup

Thursday, December 13, 2018

Brief description of the haplogroups on our trees

Below you can find brief descriptions of the haplogroups shown on our trees. For example, if you can't remember if I-S2703 is part of I-CTS10228 or I-L161, this list will answer that question.  Scroll down (the haplogroups are in alphabetical order) or use your browser's search function.

I don't intend this list to fully describe the distribution, SNPs, and age of the various branches. You can see more information by clicking here to go to the Eupedia page for I2.

Here is an easy way to determine the position of a SNP:
Go to the YFull tree at https://www.yfull.com/tree/
Click Search at upper right, and enter the SNP, for example S2703
You will see a green box at right which lists the relevant tree for this SNP, or an equivalent SNP, for example I-Y3749
Click on the green box and you will see the tree. Look at the top and you will see that I-Y3749 is part of I-L1498, which is part of I-S2639, which is part of I-L161.1 etc.
Of course, not all SNPs will be found in YFull's tree.

I-P37 is a major haplogroup found throughout Europe. It reaches a maximum in Sardinia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and it's common throughout eastern and central Europe. It's also relatively common in Spain, Portugal and France.

Click here for our I-P37 orientation tree.

Formerly I-P37 was known as I-P37.2 because the P37 mutation occurs in haplogroup D (this was called P37.1) and in halogroup I (this was called P37.2).

For many years, only four SNPs were known in the I-P37.2 haplogroup: P37.2, M26, M161 and P41.2/M359.2. Two of these SNPs are important, P37 of course, and I-M26 is the branch common in Sardinia but also found in Iberia and throughout western Europe. The other SNPs are very rare and not very important: I-M161 is a very small part of I-M26 and I-P41.2/I-M359.2 is apparently part of I-CTS10228.

Because I-P37 is a very old group, several major branches could be identified by STR marker patterns. The four largest groups and their key marker values are:
"Dinaric" nicknamed after the Dinaric Alps in Bosnia and Herzgovina and Croatia. We now know that this group is equivalent to I-CTS10228. Dinaric has DYS385=14-15 or similar and DYS565=9
"Sardinian" which is characterized by YCA=11-21 or similar, this is equivalent to I-M26 (to be exact, the group with YCA=11-21 is equivalent to the more specific I-PF3981 haplogroup)
"Isles" which is equivalent to I-L161, easy to identify but no single distinctive marker value
"Western" which is equivalent to I-L233, has distinctive DYS388=15

All of these groups were well known from STR markers before any SNPs were discovered to define these groups. (except for M26 which was already known).

Some smaller groups were also identified by STR patterns.
"Disles" this group has markers very similar to Dinaric, but it lacks the distinctive value DYS565=9. Disles has DYS565=11 which is the common value for haplogroup I as a whole. We now consider Disles to be the group that is L621+ but CTS10228-

"I2a*-France" is now known as I-L1294 "France". Has distinctive DYS388=9.

"Alpine", now known as I-Y11949, it's closely related to I-L233 "Western".

"Northern France", now known as I-L880

and finally a major new group was discovered in 2017, called I-Y11949. It's M423+ but L621- and L161-. This group doesn't have a nickname and it's not shown on any tree on this blog. It's found in northern Spain and Portugal/the Azores.

I-A17273 is part of the I-M26 haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-L160 and I-PF4088. I-A17273 includes men from Switzerland and Iberia, and it includes the large I-A19395 branch which is characterized by the STR marker value DYS450=9. The I-A19395 branch is found in Great Britain and Ireland, and also in northern parts of Germany, and even in Baltic areas where I-M26 is very rare (Germans from northern Poland, and people from Sweden and Finland).

I-A2330 is part of the I-L161 haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-S2742, which is part of I-S2703. I-A2330 includes English men, but also men with ancestry from Germany, Norway etc. It's a small haplogroup.

I-A8462 is one of two fundamental branches of I-L233 "Western". At this point, all known I-A8462 members have paternal ancestry from Great Britain.

I-A8742 is part of the I-L161 haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-A1150 which is part of I-L1498. The most recent common ancestor of I-A8742 lived approximately 6400 years old according to YFull's calculation. But it's a small haplogroup, and all known I-A8742 members have paternal origin from Great Britain and France.

I-CTS10228  is the very large haplogroup that is nicknamed "Dinaric".

I-CTS11338 is part of the I-M26 "Sardinian" haplogroup. More specifically, I-CTS11338 is part of I-L160. I-CTS11338 contains the large I-PF4190 branch which is very common in Sardinia, and the large I-Z102 branch which is found in Spain, Portugal and France (and also in England and very low levels). I-CTS11338 also contains several small branches.

I-F1295 is part of the I-M26 "Sardinian" haplogroup. Most I-M26 men belong to the well known I-L160 haplogroup, and all known I-L160 men belong to either the large I-PF4088 haplogroup or the much smaller I-F1295 haplogroup.

I-F1295 contains three fundamental branches:

  • one small branch from England
  • one small branch that contains a single French-Canadian family
  • the large I-PF6950 branch which contains men from Greece, Italy, Sardinia, Spain, the Azores, Ireland and Germany. I-PF6950 also contains a cluster of men with Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish ancestry, one of these families claims earlier Spanish (Sephardic) origin. This cluster is the only known Jewish branch in I-M26.
I-FGC56815 is part of the I-L233 "Western" haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-Y4252. All known I-FGC56815 men have British (southern English) paternal origin.

I-FT11343 is part of the I-L233 "Western" haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-A8462. All known I-FT11343 men belong to the Lindsay/Lindsey/Lindesay family from Scotland, or they belong to downstream branches and very likely have a Lindsay paternal ancestor at some point in the past.

I-L160 is part of the I-M26 "Sardinian" haplogroup. Most I-M26 men belong to the well known I-L160 haplogroup, and all known I-L160 men belong to either the large I-PF4088 haplogroup or the much smaller I-F1295 haplogroup.

I-L161 has been nicknamed "Isles", it's one of the major branches of I-P37. But there are two fundamental branches of I-L161, and the I-Y13338 branch has been found only in continental Europe (Poland, Germany, Bulgaria) and also in Iran.

I-L1294 was formerly called I-P37.2 "France", it's part of the I-S21825 haplogroup. All known I-L1294 results at FTDNA have ancestry from Britain, France or Germany, and there is one man from Spain. But the I-L1294 haplogroup is easily identified by the distinctive STR marker value DYS388=9, in combination with other marker values. We know from scientific studies that I-L1294 is somewhat common in France, and in Catalonia, Spain, and it has also been found in Albania. This is a good illustration of the northwestern European bias of the FTDNA database, and a good illustration that there is still much to learn about haplogroups even in Western Europe.

I-L233 is one of the major branches of I-P37, it's nicknamed "Western" because it's usually found in Western Europe: Great Britain, the Netherlands, northwestern Germany, Denmark. But it's also found in Poland, Moldova, Croatia, Albania etc.

I-L621 is one of the major branches of I-P37. I-L621 contains the very large I-CTS10228 Dinaric haplogroup which reaches a maximum in Bosnia and Herzegovina and which is common throughout Eastern and Central Europe. I-L621 also contains several small branches known as "Disles", these branches are especially common in Great Britain and Ireland but they also have been found in Germany, Poland and Sweden.

I-PH908 is part of the I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup. I-PH908 is exactly the same as the Dinaric South cluster: this is the group of Dinarics with DYS448=19 and usually DYS449=30 or some other low value.

I-S21825 contains the several small haplogroups. The largest is I-L233 "Western". I-S21825 also contains the I-Y11949 "Alpine" group which is closely related to I-L233, and the I-L880 "Northern France, and the I-L1294 "France" haplogroups.

I-S17250 is part of the I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup. The I-S17250 branch is the most numerous branch below I-CTS10228, it prevails in Central Europe (Poland, Hungary, Germany, Slovakia, Czech Republic, part of Ukraine) and Southeastern Europe. This haplogroup encompasses a part of the Dinaric North cluster and the whole Dinaric South cluster.

I-S2703 is part of the I-L161 "Isles" haplogroup. I-S2703 contains the Irish/British I-Y3723 haplogroup (shown in another tree) and the I-S2472 haplogroup which is a complicated group that is found in Britain and Ireland, but also in Germany, Poland and Sweden.

I-Y11222 is part of the I-M26 "Sardinian" haplogroup. I-Y11222 is a parallel branch to the much larger I-L160 haplogroup. I-Y11222 is maybe more typical of northern Europe (Ireland, Britain, Germany) and I-L160 is maybe more typical of southern Europe (Iberia, Italy, Sardinia) but both haplogroups are found in all of these areas.

I-Y12072 is nicknamed "Isles-A", it's part of I-L161. I-Y12072 contains a few rare branches but most I-Y12072 men belong to the large I-PF4135 haplogroup which expanded out of County Cork, Ireland over 1500 years ago. I-PF4135 is now found in Scotland, England, the Isle of Man and Ireland.

I-Y14612 is part of the I-L161 haplogroup, more specifically it's part of I-S2742, which is part of I-S2703. The I-Y14612 haplogroup contains the IsleS-B1 cluster and related branches, these are mostly from England and Sweden. In my opinion there's not a major distinction between I-Y14612 and other branches of I-S2742, we created the I-Y14612 tree because our I-S2703 tree was too large.

I-Y18331 shown on our I-CTS10228 tree. I-Y18331 is found in Greece and in the Jewish diaspora cluster.

I-Y3723 is part of the I-L161 haplogroup. I-Y3723 is almost exclusively found in Britain and Ireland, and it contains the large Isles-C and Isles-D branches. Many of these branches are especially characteristic of central-western Ireland, some branches are more typical of Scotland.

I-Y4252 is contains almost everyone in the I-L233 "Western" haplogroup. According to the FTDNA tree, I-Y4252 contains 26 immediate child branches, 15 of these branches are named and 11 are unnamed I-Y4252* branches that contain only a single member at present. (These numbers are as of April 2020 and they will change in the future). Most of the named branches contain representatives from Great Britain and Ireland and also from Continental Europe/Scandinavia. Our I-Y4252 draft tree groups some of the branches into the larger I-FGC56883 branch. FGC56883 occurs in a palindrome region and it won't be added to FTDNA and YFull's trees

I-Y4460 is part of the I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup. The I-Y4460 haplogroup prevails in eastern and northeastern Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Baltic countries etc.). All persons from this haplogroup are in the Dinaric North cluster.

I-Y4882 is part of the I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup. All members of I-Y4882 belong to the Dinaric North cluster.

I-Y5455 is nicknamed "Isles-C", it's part of I-L161 and more specifically part of I-Y3723. Isles-C is especially characteristic of central-western Ireland.

I-Z113 is part of the I-M26 haplogroup, it's maybe the most common branch of I-M26 outside of Sardinia. The MRCA of I-Z113 lived approximately 1600 years ago, according to YFull's calculation. I-Z113 is found in Spain, Portugal, the Azores and France, and there are also a few I-Z113 men from England.


I-Z17855 is part of the I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup. I-Z17855 can be found in mostly in Bulgaria, also in Serbia, Greece, Slovakia, Hungary and Ukraine etc. All persons in this haplogroup belong to the Dinaric North cluster.



Wednesday, December 12, 2018

All known I-F1295* men belong to new I-BY175009 branch: 2018-12-10 tree for I-F1295

Click here to download our 2018-12-10 tree for I-F1295

This tree shows a new branch called I-BY175009. It contains all known I-F1295 men who don't belong to the large I-PF6950 branch, and who don't belong to the I-BY63857 branch (this branch contains only a single French-Canadian family at present).

We can predict that the formerly I-F1295* men belong to I-BY175009 based on patterns in Y67 markers. All of the known I-BY175009 men have paternal ancestry from England. This branch is not yet shown on the YFull and FTDNA trees, maybe YFull and FTDNA will choose another name for this branch.

But most I-F1295 men belong to the large I-PF6950 haplogroup. This tree also shows a new branch called I-Y68070. There are two I-Y68070 Big Y results: one with ancestry from Calabria in southern Italy, and one has colonial American ancestry and a Scottish name. And another man born in Germany has strong STR similarities to the Scottish-American man.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-F1295

Click here for a brief description of the I-F1295 haplogroup


Wednesday, December 5, 2018

A fourth branch of I-Y4460: 2018-12-01 tree

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-Y4460

This update shows a new I-Y4460* result, this is the fourth fundamental branch of I-Y4460. This family has been in Syria since the 17th century, and they believe their ancestor was from modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, he came to Syria as a high official in the Ottoman empire.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4460

Click here to find a brief description of the Y4460 haplogroup

Many updates: 2018-12-01 tree for I-Y4882

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-Y4882

This tree shows several new branches:


  • a new haplogroup below I-Y16473, it's called I-BY130310 and the two known members have paternal ancestry from Slovakia
  • several SNPs in I-A20031 have been resolved, now we have an I-A20031* branch and a more specific I-BY31896 branch. All of these people have paternal ancestry from Poland/western Ukraine.
  • a new I-BY169307 haplogroup below I-A1328 and parallel to I-A7318. One of the members of I-BY169307 has paternal ancestry from Slovakia. (edit--and the other member also has ancestry from Slovakia)
  • a new I-BY103931 haplogroup below I-A1328. The known members have paternal ancestry from Poland and Russia.


These new results are consistent with previous results: I-Y4882 prevails in central Europe (Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Ukraine etc).


Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y4882

Click here for a brief description of the I-Y4882 haplogroup

More details about the continental European branch of "Isles": updated I-L161 tree

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-L161

I-L161 has been nicknamed "Isles" because it's much more common in Great Britain and Ireland than anywhere else. But there are two fundamental branches of I-L161, they are called I-Y13338 and I-FGC7107/S2639.  The I-Y13338 branch is known exclusively from continental Europe (Germany, Poland and Bulgaria) and in one instance, from southern Iraq.

This tree shows a new branch called I-BY53880, both members have paternal ancestry from Germany.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161

Click here for a brief description of the I-L161 haplogroup

Again, a Greek Dinaric who's not closely related to other Dinarics: new tree for I-S17250

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-S17250

This tree shows a new Big Y result for a man with paternal ancestry from Kythira, an island located between the Greek mainland and Crete. Before this Big Y, Z16971, Y12910, and Y5595/Z16972 were considered to be equivalent SNPs. The new result is Z16971+ and Y12910+ but Y5595-/Z16972-. Now we have a new branch, and once again, there is a Greek Dinaric who is only very distantly related to Dinarics from more northern areas.

This tree also shows two additional Big Y results, they are both I-A815* and they have paternal ancestry from Denmark and Ukraine.

As a reminder, every result on this tree belongs to the Dinaric North cluster. The details about I-PH908 (Dinaric South) are shown on the more specific I-PH908 tree.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250

Click here to find a brief description of the I-S17250 haplogroup

Another Big Y for the largest Irish branch in I-M26: 2018-12-01 tree for I-Y11222

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-Y11222

Irish men belong to many different branches of I-M26, but probably the biggest branch that is largely confined to Ireland is I-Y15581. This branch has a MRCA of 3800 years ago, according to YFull's calculation. All known members have Irish paternal ancestry, except for one English/Welsh family and one family from Iceland that claims Irish ancestry dating to the settlement of Iceland.

Thanks to a recent Big Y there is a new branch is called I-Y45584, FTDNA calls this branch I-BY151272. The two Big Ys for I-Y45584 share many additional SNPs but they are not very closely related, probably their MRCA lived more than 1000 years ago.

Click here to download our previous tree for I-Y11222

Click here for a brief description of the I-Y11222 haplogroup

Two new branches in I-Z17855: 2018-12-01 tree for I-CTS10228

Click here to download our 2018-12-01 tree for I-CTS10228

This update shows two new branches in the I-Z17855 haplogroup:

Formerly, Y135658/BY37212 and A20030 were considered to be equivalent SNPs. But a new Big Y for a Romanian ancestry man is Y135658+/BY37212+ but A20030-. The A20030+ men are from Serbia and Montenegro.

There is also a new branch called I-Y68571, the two known members have ancestry from Russia


Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS10228

Click here for a brief description of the I-CTS10228 haplogroup

Monday, December 3, 2018

4 new branches: 2018-11-23 tree for I-PH908

Click here to download our 2018-11-23 tree for I-PH908

This tree shows four new branches:

In the DYS561=15 section:

I-Y59865, a very downstream branch of I-A356/I-Z16983. The two known members have ancestry from Germany/Poland (I think).

Y140560, part of I-Y32084. The two known members are from southern Bulgaria and southern Greece, and their common ancestor probably lived more than 1000 years ago.

I-Y84307. The two known members of this branch have the same surname and have paternal ancestry from Croatia. They share 6 additional SNPs that are equivalent to Y84307.

In the DYS561=16 section:

I-BY189804. One of the members of this branch has paternal ancestry from Bulgaria.

Click here to find the previous tree for I-PH908

Click here to find a brief description of the I-PH908 haplogroup