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Major update reorganizes entire haplogroup I2 tree

Wednesday, August 22, 2018

updated SNP information for new I-Y144303 branch: August 21 tree for I-PH908

Click here to download our August 21, 2018 tree for I-PH908

This update shows some additional SNP information for the new I-Y144303 branch.
Y14403 is a high quality SNP and it's available for individual testing at YSeq.
Our tree shows two equivalent SNPs BY171718 and BY169079, and YFull shows an additional SNP Y151633. All of these SNPs are lower quality for various reasons.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-PH908

Monday, August 20, 2018

Major update reorganizes entire haplogroup I2 tree

Thanks to some recent Big Ys for the rare I-L416 haplogroup, there is a new level in the tree between M438 and L460 (and between M438 and L596). See this sketch of the new I2 tree:

And you can compare the new tree to Eupedia's March 2017 tree as shown below (click here to go to Eupedia's I2 page).

You can see on the March 2017 tree that there was a triple branch point at the earliest stage of the I2 haplogroup. But it was very likely that two of the three branches were most closely related, and now we know that the I-L460 haplogroup and the I-L596 haplogroup share CTS1799/PF3698/Z2645 and 11 other SNPs that aren't found in the I-L416 haplogroup. See the latest ISOGG tree for more details (click here).

(the I-L416 haplogroup is also called I-L415 and I-L417, the SNPs L415, L416, and L417 are different SNPs but they are currently phylogenetically equivalent).

The I-L416 results do not appear on the YFull tree, and YFull tree doesn't show this new level. But the FTDNA haplotree has been updated, see below (I don't know if FTDNA has a public haplotree).

The ISOGG alphanumeric style names have also been updated: I-P37 was formerly called I2a1 and now I-P37 is called I2a1a. But we don't use this naming system in our project: this blog is called I2aproject for historical reasons but we restrict this blog and our I2a Project at FTDNA to I-P37 only.

Thanks to the I-L596/I-L417 project at FTDNA for organizing the Big Ys and this update to the tree (click here to visit the project). The I-L417 group is very small and the known members have paternal ancestry from Germany, Italy, Scotland and Iran. Click here to see the colorized STR results page for the  I-L596/I-L417 project, it shows a few I-L417 men at the very bottom of the page (you will need to change the page size box at top or click to view page 2 of results). 

The changes to the tree are important: now we have resolved many SNPs and we know that M438/P215/S31 and approximately 21 additional SNPs occurred first, and CTS1799/PF3698/Z2645 and approximately 11 additional SNPs occurred more recently. If someone creates a better explanation of the new I2 tree I will post a link here.

A new Big Y in the rare Isles-B5 branch: Updated I-L161 tree

Click here to see our August 19, 2018 tree for I-L161

This update shows a new Big Y result, he is L161+ S2639+ L1498+ A1150+ A8742+, this is Ken Nordtvedt's "Isles-B5" branch. All known men in this I-A8742 branch have British or Irish paternal ancestry, except for one man with French Canadian ancestry. The new result is for an American with English paternal ancestry, and he shares A18001 and approximately 33 additional SNPs with two previous Big Ys. FTDNA has named this branch I-BY37270, and it's approximately 1800 years old.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161

Sunday, August 19, 2018

Finally, more Big Y results! updated I-S2703 tree

Click here to download our August 19, 2018 tree for I-S2703
Click here to download our August 17, 2018 tree for I-S2703

Our August 19 tree is most current of course.

The August 17 tree shows a new Big Y highlighted in red at the very top of the tree. This is the second Big Y for the "Isles-B4" cluster. Isles-B4 is a small cluster with distinctive STR marker values, especially DYS388=11, and Isles-B4 is found only in Great Britain and Ireland (mostly England). FTDNA now calls this branch I-PH3480. There is also an anonymous Irish sample from the P. Hallast study in this branch (ire-94).

The August 19 tree provides more details about the SNPs in the I-PH3480 branch, now that we have looked at the VCF file from the new Big Y.

The August 19 tree also shows a new Big Y for a German-American man. He shares two SNPs (A20828 and BY50244) with two English-ancestry men. But he has 28 private variants (SNPs) not found in the English men, and probably his common ancestor with them lived 3500 or more years ago.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S2703

Monday, August 6, 2018

minor SNP corrections, updated I-L160 tree

Click here to download our August 5, 2018 tree for I-L160

This tree shows some minor changes to SNP listings compared to our previous tree

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L160

A French Canadian F1295+ PF6950- branch: Updated I-F1295 tree

Click here to download our August 6, 2018 tree for I-F1295

This update shows a new branch called I-BY63857. Both members are from the same French Canadian family and their common ancestor lived in the 1600s or 1700s in Canada. They share 50 SNPs below F1295 that haven't been found in any other family.

I-F1295 now has two immediate child branches: the large I-PF6950 branch that has been found in Greece, Italy, Spain, the Azores, Germany, Ireland, Britain (probably), and in some Eastern European Jewish families; and the I-BY63857 branch which is represented by only the single French Canadian family at this point.

There are two additional known F1295+ PF6950- families and we will try to organize Big Ys for them. We don't know their results for BY63857 or any of the other SNPs found in the French Canadian family.

There are two Big Ys in progress for I-PF6950 men.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-F1295

two German Big Ys in the very Sardinian I-PF4190 branch: Updated I-CTS11338 tree

Click here to download our August 4, 2018 tree for I-CTS11338

If you look at this I-CTS11338 tree, you will see some of the biggest and best studied branches of I-M26.

P. Francalacci's 2013 study of 1200 Sardinian men found approximately 464 men who belonged to I-M26. And 346 of these men belonged to I-CTS11338. You will see several branches on this tree, but all 346 men belonged to the I-PF4190 branch. We represent these 346 anonymous Sardinian men by a single branch with no FTDNA kit number listed. The YFull tree shows only 7 of the 346 I-PF4190 Sardinan samples from Francalacci's study. To represent all the Y chromosome data sequenced by Francaclacci, we would need to add approximately 152 branches and hundreds of SNPs to our I-PF4190 tree.

At this point I consider I-PF4190 to be exactly equivalent to the main Sardinian expansion of I-M26. The slightly larger I-PF4189 group contains some major branches found only in Great Britain, so I-PF4189 can no longer be considered completely Sardinian. But I-PF4190 has four known immediate child branches, and these have all been found in Sardinia, and three of them are known only from Sardinia, and all of these branches had a rapid expansion in Sardinia.

This update shows a new branch called I-PF4432, it is represented by two Big Y results: one for a German man, and one for an American with likely German paternal ancestry from the 1700s. This tree shows several SNPs in red that are shared by the two men, some of these SNPs are also found in some of the 346 men from Francalacci's study.

It's difficult to represent all of the SNP data because there are so many Sardinian samples, and Francalacci's Y chromosome sequences are not exactly comparable to the Big Y sequences, different regions of the Y chromosome were sequenced and we do not have access to the Francalacci raw data.

But based on the number of unique novel variants in each man, the German and the German-American man have a common ancestor who lived approximately 2500 years ago, and their common ancestor with some of the men in Sardinia lived at approximately the same time.

The two German-ancestry men belong to a downstream branch of I-PF4190, and their branch is well within the population expansion in Sardinia. From Genographic 2.0 test results, we know about another German-American family that belongs to a different downstream branch of I-PF4190, and we know a few additional German families (and one Irish "Norman" family) that very likely belong to I-PF4190.

In most cases, the common ancestor between I-M26 men in Sardinia and I-M26 men in other parts of Europe lived 4500 years ago or longer. But in I-PF4190 we see these much closer relationships. Is this evidence for an "out of Sardinia" expansion, that we noticed several years ago with the first Geno 2.0 results? (click here). And is there some special connection to Germany?

Click here to find our previous tree for I-CTS11338

Saturday, August 4, 2018

A French Canadian in I-A1150 (Isles-B3/B5): Updated I-L161 tree

Click here to download our August 1, 2018 tree for I-L161

I-A1150 is a major branch of I-L161 "Isles". I-A1150 contains Ken Nordtvedt's well defined Isles-B3 STR-based cluster, his poorly defined Isles-B5 STR-based cluster, and some other men whose STRs don't exactly match either cluster.

Until now, all known I-A1150 men have had British or Irish paternal ancestry. The new Big Y is for a French Canadian man who is A1150+ and A8742+. He shares 7 SNPs below A8742 with an English man.

This update also shows two SNPs indicated in red: Y28217 and Y31657. These SNPs are equivalent to A10029, the three SNPs define another major branch of I-L161.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-L161

A new branch in Isles-C: Updated I-Y3723 tree

Click here to download our August 1, 2018 tree for I-Y3723

This update shows a new branch in Isles-C, represented by a single Big Y (shown in red).

Isles-C is a distinctive group which has a MRCA who lived approximately 2100 years ago. Isles-C is called I-Y5450, I-Y5455 etc. It's especially typical of central-western Ireland, as is Isles-D2 (I-Y4665).

Originally Ken Nordvedt named two clusters within Isles-C: Isles-C2 which has distinctive marker values especially DYS392=12, and Isles-C2 which contained everyone else. Over time we have identified several other branches as shown on this tree, but Isles-C2 (I-Y5451) remains the largest group.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y3723

Two Big Ys for Isles-B1: updated I-Y14612 tree

Click here to download our August 1, 2018 tree for I-Y14612

Click here to find our previous tree for I-Y14612

Friday, August 3, 2018

Our August 1, 2018 tree for I-S17250

Click here to download our August 1, 2018 tree for I-S17250

I-PH908 (which is the same as Dinaric South) is part of I-S17250, but there too much information to fit on one tree. Click here to find our new tree for I-PH908.

Our new I-S17250 tree shows details only on S17250+ PH908- Big Ys. All the Big Y results on our new I-S17250 tree belong to the Dinaric North cluster. Of course some other Dinaric North Big Y results are shown on our I-CTS10228 tree (click here).

This update shows one new Big Y result, he has ancestry from Slovakia and he belongs to the new I-BY30333* branch. This update shows one additional SNP, BY30340, indicated in red.

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250

A new tree for I-PH908 and a new branch for an old family

Click here to download our first tree specifically for I-PH908

I-PH908 is equivalent to the Dinaric South cluster. There have been more than 50 Big Ys for I-PH908, and we now have created a tree specifically for I-PH908.

This tree shows a new branch called I-Y144303. Two of the members share the same surname, one has ancestry from northern Dalmatia (Croatia) and the other has ancestry from western Bosnia and Herzegovina. The third member is from the United States, and his ancestry is thought to be from Austria (but maybe this refers to the Austrian Empire or Austria-Hungary, not the modern country of Austria).

All three men share three SNPs: Y144303 and two others shown on the tree. But their common ancestor lived approximately 1200 years ago based on the number of the unique SNPs in each man.

The two men with the same surname share 3 additional SNPs: A22770, A22771 and hg38:20906025 A to G. FTDNA has chosen to name this branch I-BY170480: A22771 and BY170480 are different names for the same SNP. Maybe some of the new SNPs shown on this tree will be found in additional families. The two men with the same surname share a paternal ancestor who lived a few hundred years ago, based on the number of private variants in each man (4 in one man, 1 in the other man), and their STR differences (Genetic Distance=6 when Y111 are compared).

Click here to find our previous tree for I-S17250 which included details about I-PH908. In the future all details about I-PH908 will be shown only the I-PH908 tree.

Click here to find our guide tree which shows the different branches of I-P37 and the different trees available on this blog.