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Major update reorganizes entire haplogroup I2 tree

Monday, August 20, 2018

Major update reorganizes entire haplogroup I2 tree

Thanks to some recent Big Ys for the rare I-L416 haplogroup, there is a new level in the tree between M438 and L460 (and between M438 and L596). See this sketch of the new I2 tree:

And you can compare the new tree to Eupedia's March 2017 tree as shown below (click here to go to Eupedia's I2 page).

You can see on the March 2017 tree that there was a triple branch point at the earliest stage of the I2 haplogroup. But it was very likely that two of the three branches were most closely related, and now we know that the I-L460 haplogroup and the I-L596 haplogroup share CTS1799/PF3698/Z2645 and 11 other SNPs that aren't found in the I-L416 haplogroup. See the latest ISOGG tree for more details (click here).

(the I-L416 haplogroup is also called I-L415 and I-L417, the SNPs L415, L416, and L417 are different SNPs but they are currently phylogenetically equivalent).

The I-L416 results do not appear on the YFull tree, and YFull tree doesn't show this new level. But the FTDNA haplotree has been updated, see below (I don't know if FTDNA has a public haplotree).

The ISOGG alphanumeric style names have also been updated: I-P37 was formerly called I2a1 and now I-P37 is called I2a1a. But we don't use this naming system in our project: this blog is called I2aproject for historical reasons but we restrict this blog and our I2a Project at FTDNA to I-P37 only.

Thanks to the I-L596/I-L417 project at FTDNA for organizing the Big Ys and this update to the tree (click here to visit the project). The I-L417 group is very small and the known members have paternal ancestry from Germany, Italy, Scotland and Iran. Click here to see the colorized STR results page for the  I-L596/I-L417 project, it shows a few I-L417 men at the very bottom of the page (you will need to change the page size box at top or click to view page 2 of results). 

The changes to the tree are important: now we have resolved many SNPs and we know that M438/P215/S31 and approximately 21 additional SNPs occurred first, and CTS1799/PF3698/Z2645 and approximately 11 additional SNPs occurred more recently. If someone creates a better explanation of the new I2 tree I will post a link here.


  1. @Bernie, I've been asked to find this SNP chain:

    I-L460 \ I-M436 \ I-M223 \ I-CTS616 \ I-Y3721 \ I-Y3670 \ I-L1229 \ I-Z2069 \ I-Z2059 \ Y9443

    Could u please give a hint, which of PDF file it is about? It's not known branch for me, so I never follow L460 updates.

    1. Final SNP is under this https://yfull.com/tree/I-Z2068/

  2. Hello Andrii, did you find an answer to your question? I think the YFull tree is a good resource. This blog doesn't cover I-M223 and I don't know much about I-M223, even though my maternal great-grandfather belonged to I-M223, more specifically I-P78. (He was a German speaker from today's Poland and emigrated to the US in 1881).

    1. In fact I expected that this blog covers all I2 branches, including I-M223.
      But OK for me. I will suggest the person who asked - this page:

    2. There have been many major changes to the I2 tree over the years (in fact most of I2 was part of I1 until 2008, see the 2007 ISOGG tree: https://isogg.org/tree/2007/ISOGG_HapgrpI07.html

      It's always been difficult to choose a name for the I-P37 project and for this blog. There have been several problems specific to I-P37
      --there was no known SNP that was specific to the very important Dinaric group, for many years Dinarics were called I-P37.2* So it was important to have a big haplogroup project that covered Dinarics along with very distantly related branches like I-M26. It would have been difficult to create a project specifically for Dinarics. This situation is still the same because FTDNA's standard haplogroup prediction remains I-P37
      -for many years the group was conventionally called I-P37.2 to distinguish it from the D-P37.1 haplogroup. Our members expected to see the .2 and the period/full stop/decimal point is difficult to display in URLs so we chose the I2a Project name. And if we named the project I-P37.2 or I-P37 there would be endless questions about the difference between I-P37.2 and I-P37.1 and I-P37
      --when the L460 SNP rearranged the entire I2 tree in 2013, some haplogroup projects chose to publicize the new names: the I-M223 project abandoned the I2b1 name and adopted the I2a2a name. But it was always clear that that this naming scheme was only temporary because the I-L417 branch had no Big Y results.

      At this point, I can't anticipate any major changes to the I2 tree or to the I-P37 tree. But maybe there will be a surprise at any time. For example in 2017 we discovered some M423+ L161- L621- results which rearranged the entire I-M423 tree.

    3. Bernie Cullen What part of Poland did the grandfather emigrate from?

  3. My great-grandfather was from a village very close to Chodzie┼╝ (formerly called Kolmar in Posen and Chodziesen). My maternal uncle is surnamed Winkler, he has a close Y67 match to a Winckler who lives in Sweden, this man believes his family was from Germany a few hundred years ago. A close Y-DNA match has done Big Y with M223+ P78+ Y9381+ results.

  4. So, bottom line, what is the origination of a male with I-L233 haplogroup?

    1. I think it's most likely that I-L233 originated (began its expansion) approximately 2200 years ago, somewhere in northern Europe, maybe in northern Germany or northern Poland.

      The L233 mutation probably occurred a few thousand years earlier, but the I-L233 haplogroup was very small until the expansion.

      Probably 500 years ago I-L233 was already found in Great Britain, Ireland, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Poland, maybe also Finland, Norway, Sweden, Italy, and other countries in central and Southeast Europe (Croatia, Albania, Romania, Moldova etc). And I wouldn't be surprised to find I-L233 in any country in Europe.

      There are 25 or more major branches of I-L233 that are 1800 years old, or older. Most of these branches are probably found in many regions of Europe. Only a few branches are restricted to more specific localities. For example, the I-A8462 branch is so far restricted to Britain and Ireland.

      So I-L233 had very rapid expansion, and it's found in most parts of Europe.