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Major update reorganizes entire haplogroup I2 tree

Thursday, December 21, 2017

Loschbour-like results: A Big Y result is the first known living I-M423* man (M423+ L161- L621-) and diverged from main I-M423 line at a similar time as Loschbour ancient DNA sample

In 2014, Lazaridis et al published an ancient DNA genome from an ~8,000 year old skeleton from Loschbour cave in Luxembourg (click here for paper). Click here for photos of skeleton and cave.

The Loschbour skeleton belonged to a previously unknown Y-DNA haplogroup branch: I-M423*. All living men in I-M423 were additionally derived for 75 SNPs that were considered equivalent to M423. Loschbour man was derived for many of these SNPs, but he was ancestral for at least 31 of the 75 SNPs.

Click here to see the YFull tree for I-M423 which shows the I-M423* Loschbour sample, and it shows the more specific I-Y3104 branch (which contains the I-L161 "Isles" and I-L621 "Dinaric and Disles" branches).

Now we have Big Y results for a man who lives in the Azores, he is also M423+ L161- L621-. According to his results summary CSV file, he is ancestral for most SNPs equivalent to L161 and results for some other SNPs were not reported. He is also ancestral for most SNPs equivalent to L621, and results for some other SNPs were not reported.

Finally, he is derived for at least 26 SNPs equivalent to M423 (click here for details from CSV file), and he is ancestral for at least 16 SNPs equivalent to Y3104 (click here for details from CSV file). As usual, some SNPs are not reported in the CSV file. His list of derived and ancestral SNPs exactly corresponds to the list of derived and ancestral SNPs for Loschbour man, as far as can be determined from the CSV file.*** Update: Dec. 25: We have examined the Azorean man's VCF file, and he has one derived SNP which is negative in Loschbour sample according to YFull. It is PF4247/M9665/Z1595 ChrY (hg38) 10,002,838. This SNP is reported as ? in the Azorean man's CSV file, maybe because of low quality.  Click here for spreadsheet of M423 equivalent SNPs from the VCF file. Click here for spreadsheet of ancestral SNPs from the VCF file. (end update)

So the Azorean man's paternal line diverged from the main line of I-M423 at approximately the same time that Loschbour man's paternal line diverged from the main line of I-M423. (The main line is I-Y3104 which contains the I-L161 and I-L621 branches).

But apparently the Azorean man is not closely related to Loschbour man: according to his VCF file, the Azorean man has only one novel variant from this list of the Loschbour man's novel variants (click here) (We first mapped these variants into the hg38 assembly.) Only one position was found shared, 20,278,231 aka FGC7076. This SNP is not reliable because there is another Y chromosome region which is 97.3% similar to FGC7076 region. So it seems that the Azorean man is not in the Loschbour line, rather he is in a brother line which split from the Loschbour line and the Y3104+ (L161+, L621+) line approximately at the same time.

The Azorean man has 67 Y-DNA STR marker results, and there are several other men with similar markers. One is a Basque ancestry man who is a member of the I-P37 project, and he has a Big Y currently in progress. There are also some other FTDNA members with similar markers--another Basque man, and two families with likely German/Dutch surnames (these men are not in the I-P37 project). Finally, there are two samples from the Solé-Morata (2015) study of Catalan surnames (click here for paper): sample SLA050 (surname Sala I think) and sample MAS683 (surname Mas I think).

Unfortunately FTDNA is not preparing BAM files at the moment. We will request the BAM file, and order the YFull.com analysis.

The Big Y for the Azorean man, and the Big Y in progress for the Basque man, were funded solely by donations from I-P37 project members (approximately $400 for each Big Y). Anyone reading this blog is encouraged to make donations to the "I2a Y-HAPLOGROUP" General Fund (click here). Please send an email to berniecullen@gmail.com when you donate, so I can send you my thanks. You will eventually see your donation in our running total (click here) but this may take 24 hours. I will see your donation immediately. I-P37 project administrators will make all decisions about how to spend General Fund money: we will use the funds towards future Big Ys of high interest.

Wednesday, December 13, 2017

December 12, 2017 tree for I-S2703

Click here to download our latest I-S2703 tree

I-S2703 is a major branch of I-L161 "Isles"
I-S2703 includes much of Isles-B and all of Isles-C and Isles-D (but the Isles-C and Isles-D branches are shown in detail on our I-Y3723 tree).

This tree shows the following update:
The SNPs in red (S2624 etc) are shared by the recent Big Y for 648595, and by a PGP participant who is closely related (they share many additional SNPs not shown on the tree). The S series SNPs were named by Dr Jim Wilson (who has various affiliations, including ScotlandsDNA), but as far as I know, Dr Wilson didn't include any information about S2624+ people in his release of anonymous data from his Chromo2 testing project.

Click here to see our previous tree for I-S2703, with more information about the match between 648595 and PGP064


Thursday, December 7, 2017

December 6, 2017 draft tree for I-L233

Click here to download our December 6, 2017 draft tree for I-L233

This tree shows the following update:

A new I-A19485 branch (part of I-Y4252). The two kits in the I-A19485 branch also share the A19486 SNP. Both SNPs are available at YSeq.net

The I-Y4252 branch now has 9 immediate daughter branches with SNP names, and an additional 4 daughter branches which are unnamed because they each contain only one known family.

Click here to download our previous tree for I-L233


December 6, 2017 draft tree for I-L160

Click here to download our December 6, 2017 draft tree for I-L160

This tree shows the following update:

A new I-A19487 branch. A19487 and three other SNPs from this branch are available at YSeq.net

Click here to download our earlier tree for I-L160


March 2018 correction...was December 6, 2017 draft tree for I-F1295, a new Jewish/Spanish branch

March 22, 2018 correction:

Kit B34129 (part of the big Mexican group) has now completed the YFull.com analysis of his VCF file. And it appears that our initial analysis as incorrect. He is not closely related to the I-A11747 (Jewish) branch. Instead, he likely belongs to the I-PH1671 branch, and he is not closely related to any previous I-PH1671 Big Y result.

We will update our I-F1295 tree and write a new post. You can see our earlier, incorrect post below.



Click here to download our December 6, 2017 draft tree for I-F1295

This tree shows the following updates:
--a new I-F1295* sample (F1295+ and PF6950- etc). He has 49 private novel variants (not shown on the tree)
--the tree shows a new branch called I-A19386. This is part of the larger I-A11747 branch (and part of I-PF6950)

Many members of I-A11747 have paternal ancestry from Jewish families from Eastern Europe, with a common ancestor who lived many hundreds of years ago. But the more specific I-A19386 branch contains the only one of these Eastern European Jewish families which claims earlier Sephardic/Iberian paternal ancestry. And the I-A19386 branch also contains a large Mexican family, descended from a family from Andalusia which arrived in Mexico in the 1500s.

The A19386 test is available at YSeq.net and we will ask people to test it, and to do Big Ys.

Click here to download our earlier tree for I-F1295

Tuesday, December 5, 2017

December 2, 2017 draft tree for I-L160

Click here to download our December 2, 2017 draft tree for I-L160

This tree doesn't add any new samples, but it shows the following updates:

The branch containing kits 414154 and 287467 is now shown as I-A19455, and three additional named SNPs are shown for this branch (18 additional novel variants are not shown because of space limitations). A19455 is available as an individual SNP test at YSeq.net

We have corrected the surname for kit N166109 in the I-Z113* branch.

Click here to download our previous draft tree for I-L160.

Friday, December 1, 2017

December 1, 2017 draft tree for I-F1295 (part of I-M26)

click here to download our December 1, 2017 draft tree for I-F1295 (part of I-M26)

click here to access our previous I-F1295 tree

December 1, 2017 draft tree for I-L233 "Western"

Click here to download our December 1, 2017 draft tree for I-L233 "Western"

This tree shows the following updates:
new samples in the I-FGC56815 branch
a new I-A19384 branch containing three samples (which also share the A19385 SNP)
a new I-Y2532/FGC2093 branch. This SNP is not suitable for individual testing, but it has been confirmed by YFull and the I-Y2532/FGC2093 branch is shown on the YFull tree

some of the new A series SNPs are already available for individual testing at YSeq.net

[I edited this post  on March 4, 2018 to correct a SNP name. Correct: Y2532. Incorrect: Y2352]

Click here to access our previous tree for I-L233

December 1, 2017 draft tree for I-L160 (part of I-M26 "Sardinian")

Click here to download our December 1, 2017 draft tree for I-L160 (part of I-M26 "Sardinian")

This tree shows many new updates:
a new I-A19396 branch
a new I-A19395 branch
a new I-Z27034 branch
and a new unnamed branch which is a subbranch of I-Z27034
a new I-A19382 branch

Many of the new A series SNPs are already available as individual tests at YSeq.net

Click here to access our previous tree for I-L160

December 1, 2017 draft tree for I-Y11222

Click here to download our December 1, 2017 draft tree for I-Y11222 (part of I-M26 "Sardinian")

This update shows a Big Y for kit 555178, whose paternal country of origin is unknown. He is Y11222+ and PF6947+ and derived for several SNPs equivalent to PF6947, but he is ancestral for some SNPs that were considered equivalent to PF6947. There is no one else known with STR markers very similar to kit 555178.

There is an anonymous scientific sample from Sardinia with slightly different SNP results, and a German branch with another set of SNP results, and finally an Irish/British branch (I-Y15580) with yet another set of SNP results. The Sardinian sample has a Y chromosome sequence shared with YFull, and there are some Big Y results for the Irish/British branch, and I encourage the German branch do do a Big Y.

Click here to access our previous tree for I-Y11222