Monday, October 10, 2016

Current testing recommendations and links to order SNPs at YSeq.net

Here is a list with links to order important SNPs in some branches of I-P37 (and information about STR testing). I will update this as time permits.  I don't intend to include all SNPs, only the newest and most important SNPs. We receive no commission etc from YSeq or FTDNA, this list is for information purposes only. [updated April 2017]



General information: Most men interested in their Y-DNA haplogroup already have results for 12, 25, 37, 67, or 111 STR markers from Family Tree DNA (FTDNA), some people have results for similar tests from other companies. If you don't have STR marker results, I think your highest priority should be ordering a marker test. These tests are extremely useful in predicting results for SNPs, suggesting which SNPs you should test, and helping you answer questions about confusing SNP results. And 12 or more STR marker results can tell you right away if you belong to one of the well known branches of I-P37 or if you belong to a poorly known branch of I-P37 or possibly a previously unknown branch of I-P37, or it might tell you that you belong to a completely different haplogroup. And these tests are useful for genealogy and finding matches with men with the same surname, especially if your paternal ancestors are from Western Europe where many men have tested.

I recommend a 12, 25, or 37 marker test at FTDNA for several reasons. In general, testing 67 or 111 markers is not a high priority: you are unlikely to find additional "matches" and it's not an efficient way to predict a more specific haplogroup. The I-P37 project at FTDNA does not have link to order these tests but you can order them from many FTDNA projects appropriate to your ancestry: for example a project for your surname, the British Isles project, the adoptee project, or click here for the "project pending" project for people who can't find a more appropriate project (to purchase a test, click join at upper right of the project page).

You will save a few dollars by purchasing a test through a FTDNA project instead of the main FTDNA order page. There are sales once or twice a year that might save you an additional $20 on a 37 marker test. FTDNA uses a cheek swab method to collect your DNA sample. It's possible to do a test at FTDNA but not join any project, or to keep your results private and not see your matches.

As far as I know, FTDNA requires a 12 marker test as a minimum before you can order additional Y-DNA tests like the I2-P37 SNP Panel, individual SNP tests, or the Big Y test.

If you don't want to do a test at FTDNA you can order the YSEQ-Alpha STR panel for $58 which includes the FTDNA 12 markers plus six of the most important markers in the 13-37 marker set, or the YSEQ-Alpha-Beta panel for $88 which is equivalent to the FTDNA 37. As a reminder, you will not be able to transfer YSeq results to FTDNA. YSeq also uses a cheek swab DNA sample. There is a one time charge of $5 for the sample kit. You can order individual SNP tests or SNP panels at YSeq without any STR testing. Be sure to follow YSeq's instructions about returning the DNA sample: use the same envelope the kit arrived in, and place the enclosed mailing label on the envelope, place a single international stamp on the envelope and place directly in the mail slot. Do not ask for help at the postal counter, do not send by an expensive method, do not fill out a customs form.

Update January 2017: FTDNA has now made most of their SNPs available for individual purchase for $39 (formerly many SNPs were only available as part of the I2-P37 SNP pack).


Y11222. Almost all I-M26 men are either Y11222+ or L160+. There are several families who are likely Y11222+ but they should order Y11222 for confirmation, or start with Y14718 (below): Quenneville, the March/O'Shea/Smith group, Wood, Langton, Aas/Lie.
Y11222 is included in the I2-P37 SNP pack at FTDNA ($119, previous FTDNA testing required)
Y11222 is available as a single SNP test from FTDNA ($39, previous FTDNA testing required)
Y11222 is available as a single SNP test from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

The I-Y11222 branch is much smaller than I-L160. I-Y11222 contains one small branch in Sardinia, some small branches that seem to be restricted to Britain and Ireland, a small western German branch, and the many small branches of "M26-France" which had a relatively recent dispersal spread across Iberia, France and Britain and Ireland.

There are three branches immediately below Y11222, and so far everyone who is Y11222+ is either A11096+, PF6947+ or Y14718+.

A11096. The branch is shown on the YFull tree as I-Y21997, but Y21997 is not available for individual order. The equivalent SNP A11096 is available at YSeq, and there are three additional equivalent SNPs shown on the YFull tree. However, A11096 is not a high priority SNP and I recommend that people test test PF6947, Y14718 or A14285 first.
A11096 can currently be ordered only as a single SNP from Yseq for $17.50 (click here to order)

A14285 Almost all I-A11096 (I-Y21997) men belong to a branch called I-A14285, this branch is characterized by several distinctive marker values, for example often DYS413=19-22. I-A14285 seems to be all British.
A14285 is available as a single SNP test from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

PF6947 There seem to be three branches of I-PF6947: a small branch in Sardinia, a small branch in western Germany and England, and a small branch in Ireland which also contains one English family and one Icelandic family. There have been four Big Ys for the Irish branch and 11 of the Sardinian men have been sequenced by Paolo Francalacci. A Big Y for the German group is a high priority.
PF6947 is included in the I2-P37 SNP pack at FTDNA ($119, previous FTDNA testing required)
PF6947 is available as an individual SNP from FTDNA ($39, previous FTDNA testing required)
PF6947 is not available at YSeq and no equivalent SNPs are available

Y15659 The Irish branch is Y15659+ but the German and Sardinian branches are Y15659-. The I-Y15659 branch is shown on the YFull tree as I-Z27396.
Y15659 is available as a single SNP test from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

A7110 Several I-Y15659 families from southwestern Ireland are A7110+ and so is the English family. The Icelandic family is also very likely A7710+. I-A7110 is shown on the FTDNA haplotree, and it's shown as I-Y17390 on the YFull haplotree.





M26-France is a group identified by Ken Nordtvedt 10 or more years ago. It usually has the distinctive marker values DYS391=9, DYS447=24 and DYS425=0. But there are some also some M26-France people who have DYS391=10 (which is typical for all of I-M26) and the distinctive DYS447=24 and DYS425=0.
All of these people with DYS447=24 and DYS425=0 are Y14720+ and some people may wish to order Y14720
Y14720 is included in the I2-P37 SNP pack at FTDNA ($119, previous FTDNA testing required)
Y14720 is available as a single SNP test from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

All of these people with DYS447=24 and DYS425=0 and DYS391=9 are Y15460+ and some people may wish to order Y15460.
Y15460 can currently be ordered only as a single SNP from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

There are two known branches of I-Y15460, they are I-Y14722 and I-A19660. At this point only Y14722 is available, and I recommend that all M26-F with DYS391=9 do this test unless a family member or very close match has already done the test.
Y14722 is included in the I2-P37 SNP pack at FTDNA ($119, previous FTDNA testing required)
Y14722 is available as a single SNP test from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

I-PF6950 is a major branch of I-M26. Francalacci found 17 men in Sardinia who belong to I-PF6950. Pille Hallast found a anonymous man in Greece (identified by the label gre-4) who belongs to I-PF6950. Our project has several men with Eastern European Jewish paternal ancestry who belong to I-PF6950, and we have other members with Azorean, northern Italian, Spanish, German and likely British ancestry who belong to I-PF6950. Thanks to five Big Y tests, several SNPs for this group are available at YSeq but there have been no orders as far as I know.
A11747
A11748
A11749
PH1671


I-CTS11851 is a major branch of I-M26. This branch was first identified by Ken Nordvedt based on distinctive marker values such as DYS462=13. The important markers for this group were tested by the Sorenson labs (SMGF, Ancestry, DNAHeritage) but are not part of the FTDNA 67 (they are part of the FTDNA 111 marker set).
Many people who are M26+ L160+ PF4088+ but CTS11338- could belong to this I-CTS11851 group
CTS11851 can currently be ordered only as a single SNP from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

I-PF4189 is a major branch of I-M26.
Most I-M26 men in Sardinia are PF4189+ PF4190+ (but there are many PF4189- PF4190- branches of I-M26 in Sardinia). In addition we know PF4189+ PF4190+ men from Germany, Ireland (the Faunt family with Norman origins) and elsewhere in the Mediterranean (Malta).
There are also PF4189+ PF4190- men from England and Scotland.

*new October 2016
A12373 For people who are PF4189+ and PF4190- we recommend the A12373 test.
A12373 can currently be ordered only as a single SNP from Yseq for $17.50 (click here to order)

CTS8386: there is a small cluster of men who share some distinctive marker values: DYS448=19 or 20 (low), DYS425=10 etc. This branch is M26+...L160+...PF4088+ and CTS11338-. Two men in this cluster are CTS8386+ (Allen and McDonough) but these two men are closely related and other cluster members should do the test.
CTS8386 is included in the I2-P37 SNP pack at FTDNA ($119, previous FTDNA testing required)
CTS8386 is available as an individual SNP from FTDNA ($39, previous FTDNA testing required)

There are several smaller branches of I-M26 found in Francalacci's study of Sardinian men, and some men from other countries show 67 marker similarities to the Sardinian men and likely belong to some of these branches. For example, people named Hare, Paques and Marshall have similar markers to Canu.

I-Z27031 Four men in Francalacci's study belonged to I-Z27031
Z27031 is available as a single SNP at YSeq ($17.50 click here to order)

I-PF4119  Francalacci's study found 77 men belonging to I-PF4119, and two of his samples from this branch are shown on the YFull tree. So far, no project members are known to belong to this branch. The Genographic 2.0 Next Generation test includes several equivalent SNPs: PF4115, PF4117 etc. I don't know anyone with PF4115+ PF117+ etc. results from a Geno 2.0 Next Generation test. The Geno 2.0 original version test did not include these SNPs.
PF4119 is available as a single SNP at YSeq ($17.50 click to order)

Francalacci's samples 319-321 belonged to another branch of I-PF4088, but none of these SNPs are currently available to order.

Isles-C1: The Isles-C1 group is defined by A7729 and some people still need to order it:
A7729 is included in the I2-P37 SNP pack at FTDNA ($119, previous FTDNA testing required)
A7729 is included in the I2a-M423 SNP panel at YSeq.net ($88 click here to order)
A7729 is available as a single SNP at YSeq ($17.50 click here to order)

*new October 2016
I-A12374 is a subgroup of I-A7729. Two Big Ys are A7729+ A12374+ and share two additional novel variants, one Big Y is A7729+ A12374- and does not have the two additional novel variants
Every family in Isles-C1 should test A12374.
A12374 can currently be ordered only as a single SNP from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

Isles-C2: the Isles-C2 group is defined by Y5451 also known as FGC14457. Because Y5451/FGC14457 results can be predicted very accurately from STR markers, this is not a high priority test.
Y5451 is included in the I2-P37 SNP pack at FTDNA ($119, previous FTDNA testing required)
FGC14457 is included in the I2a-M423 SNP panel at YSeq.net ($88 click here to order)
FGC14457 can also be ordered as an individual SNP from YSeq ($17.50 click here to order)

Isles-C3: the Isles-C3 groups is defined by Y5455+ A7729- Y5451-. No SNPs specific to Isles-C3 are currently known. We recommend Big Y tests.

Isles-D2: the Isles-D2 group is defined by approximately ten SNPs including Y4665 (which is also called FGC7156) and FGC7217. In most cases these results can predicted very accurately from STRs and I recommend that Isles-D2 men order Y5280 as their first SNP instead.
Y4665 is included in the I2-P37 SNP pack at FTDNA ($119, previous FTDNA testing required).
FGC7156 (another name for Y4665) is included in the I2a-M423 SNP panel at YSeq.net ($88 click here to order)
FGC7156 (another name for Y4665)  is available as an individual SNP from FTDNA ($39, previous FTDNA testing required)
FGC7217 is available as an individual SNP from FTDNA ($39, previous FTDNA testing required)

Many Isles-D2 men are Y5280+
Y5280 was formerly part of the I2-P37 SNP pack but it cannot be tested very well by the SNP pack method and it's no longer included in the pack.
The I2a-M423 panel at YSeq.net uses a different testing method and it includes Y5280 (($88 click here to order)
Y5280 can be ordered as an individual SNP from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

Some Y5280+ men are also A10741+
A10741 can be ordered as an individual SNP from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

I-L621:  The vast majority of L621+ men belong to the very large I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" haplogroup which is one of the biggest haplogroups all over Eastern Europe. We give the name "Disles" to those who are L621+ and CTS10228-, the name Disles is a combination of Dinaric and Isles (for the British Isles where the L621+ CTS10228- group is often found).

Most L621+ CTS10228- men are CTS10936+, CTS4002+ and positive for seven additional SNPs.
Disles-A is the name for the L621+ CTS10936- CTS4002- and CTS10228- group
Disles-B is the name for the L621+ CTS10936+ CTS4002+ and CTS10228- group

In most cases results for all of these SNPs can be predicted from STRs and I recommend that Disles-B men order FGC20473 or FGC20479 (see below). But if it's unclear if you are Disles-A or Disles-B I recommend either CTS4002 or CTS10936 which are equivalent SNPs.
L621, CTS10936, CTS4002 and CTS10228 are all available as individual SNPs at FTNDA ($39, previous FTDNA testing required)
CTS10936 is available as an individual SNP at YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)
L621 is not available at YSeq but an equivalent SNP called F3145 is available at YSeq, CTS4002 is not available at YSeq but CTS10936 is equivalent and available at YSeq. CTS10228 is available as an individual test at YSeq.
L621, CTS10936, and CTS10228 are included in the I2-P37 SNP pack ($119, previous FTDNA testing required)
F3145 (equivalent to L621) CTS10936, CTS10228 are included in the I2a-M423 SNP panel at Yseq.net ($88 click here to order)

Most Disles-B men are FGC20479 and I recommend this test.
FCG20479 can currently be ordered only as a single SNP from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

Some FGC20479+ men are also FGC20473+.
FCG20473 can currently be ordered only as a single SNP from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)


I-CTS10228 "Dinaric" is the major branch of I-P37 that is found everywhere in Eastern Europe. The Dinaric-South group is defined by the STR marker values DYS448=19 and a low value for DYS449 (for example DYS449=30). We now know that the Dinaric-South cluster is defined by the SNP called PH908. All Dinaric-South men are PH908+ and only Dinaric-South men are PH908+. All Dinaric-North men are PF908-.
PH908 is not tested very well by the Big Y test.
PH908 is available as a single SNP at YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)

The Dinaric-North group is defined by the STR marker valyes DYS448=20 and a high value for DYS449 (for example DYS449=32). The Dinaric-North group is more complex and there is no single SNP that is specific to Dinaric-North and which excludes Dinaric-South.

There are many known branches of both Dinaric-North and Dinaric-South and in most cases SNP results cannot be predicted from STR markers. I recommend that Dinarics do one of these tests:
I2-P37 SNP pack at FTDNA ($119, previous FTDNA testing required.
The I2a-M423 panel at YSeq.net ($88 click here to order)

Many of the SNPs in the SNP pack and SNP are also available to test individually both at FTDNA ($39, previous FTDNA testing required) and YSeq ($17.50).
The SNP pack and SNP panel do not include some newly discovered SNPs which are available as individual tests at YSeq.

The I-L1294 "France"branch is part of the I-S21825 group, along with the I-M26 "Sardinian", the I-L880 "Northern France" and the I-L1287 "Western" and "Alpine" groups.  I-L1294 is rare and has been found in France, Great Britain, Germany, Catalonia (Spain), and southeastern Europe. I-L1294 is characterized by DYS388=9, DYS454=12 and other very distinctive marker values, so the L1294 test is not necessary in my opinion.
L1294 is available as a single SNP from FTDNA ($39, previous FTDNA testing required)
L1294 is included in the I2-P37 SNP pack at FTDNA ($119, previous FTDNA testing required).
L1294 is not available at YSeq.net

I-L1295 is a major branch of I-L1294, and so far L1294+ three men with Scottish/English paternal ancestry are additionally L1295+ and three L1294+ men with French/German paternal ancestry are L1295-. I recommend L1295 for all men in I-L1294. It is not possible to predict L1295 results from STR markers.
L1295 is available as a single SNP from FTDNA ($39, previous FTDNA testing required)
L1295 is not included in the I2-P37 SNP pack at FTDNA.
L1294 is not available at YSeq.net

I-A13906 is a branch of I-L1295. Two I-L1295 men are additionally A13906+ and one I-L1295 man is A13906-. It is not possible to predict A13906 results from STR markers. I recommend A13906 for all L1295+ men who have not already tested it as part of their Big Y test.
A13906 can currently be ordered only as a single SNP from YSeq for $17.50 (click here to order)


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